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Lesson 01


Turkish uses the latin alphabet, just like English. Additionally there are some more letters which stand for a special sound. The letters W, X and Q don’t exist in Turkish alphabet, as they are formed differently: for example Van (V like W), Taksi (instead of Taxi) and K is the same sound as Q.

Therefore Turkish alphabet looks as follows (you can play each letter to hear the pronounciation):
A – a
B – b
C – c (like J in JUNGLE)
Ç – ç (like CH in CHANCE)
D – d
E – e
F – f
G – g (like G in GARDEN, never like G in GENERAL)
Ğ – ğ (yumuşak g, it’s a special sound which is acutally not spoken, it just lengthens the vowel; ğ just occures after vowels and never at the beginning of a word, for example yağmur = the rain sounds more like yaa-mur)
H – h (always spoken, like H in HOTEL)
I – ı (this again is a special sound, it looks like an i, but notice that it’s not dotted. It sounds like an E in TIGER)
İ – i (sounds like EE in BEE, this time dotted, which is important as it is also dotted in capital letter)
J – j (similar to C but softer, usually used for words originated from French language, like jandarma = gendarmerie)
K – k
L – l
M – m
N – n
O – o (like O in SOFT, never like O in BOW)
Ö – ö (like U in BURGER)
P – p
R – r (strongly rolled, even more than the usual English R)
S – s (sharp S like in BUS)
Ş – ş (like SH in SHOP)
T – t
U – u (OO like in BOOK, never spoken like YOU)
Ü – ü (EW like in FEW)
V – v (like W in WATER)
Y – y
Z – z (ZZ like in BUZZ)


In Turkish there is no gender like “he, she, it” and no definite article like “the”. Actually Turkish is a perfectly emancipated language which makes things much easier, doesn’t it? But there is an indefinite article: bir – which is also the digit 1. Here we are, you just learned another turkish word. Tebrikler (Congratulations!)… you see, just learned another one. Let’s keep this speed:

The personal prounouns are as follows:
ben = I
sen = you
o = he, she, it
biz = we
siz = you (plural) (siz is also the polite form)
onlar = they


In Turkish there is the so called vowel harmony, which is differed in Little and GREAT VOWEL HARMONY. This is a MUST KNOW as it is the base for following grammar knowledge. Make yourself now familiar with the vowel harmony, though you still don’t know exactly how to use it. But it will be clear to you soon.

The turkish vowels are: a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü

Little Vowel Harmony:
a – ı – o – u is followed by a
e – i – ö – ü is followed by e

Great Vowel Harmony:
a – ı is followed by ı
e – i is followed by i
o – u is followed by u
ö – ü is followed by ü

Examples which make these rules clear will follow later.


Turkish is an agglutinated language which means that most words are formed with suffixes. Even complete sentences can therefore made with one word. Examples will also follow later as at this point we don’t want to irritate you too much.



Normally you know the 4 cases:
nominative (basic form)
accusative (who or what?)
dative (whom?)
genitive (whose?).

They also exist in Turkish but apart from that you have to learn about
ablative (from woher or from what?) and
lokative (where?).

Therefore Turkish has 6 cases but as you will notice later it’s not that complicated.


Actually the phrase construction is summarized easily: Put the verb at the end of the sentence. Every other word prior to the verb can be placed almost in any order. Maybe here and there some wild combinations might sound strange but nevertheless you will be understood – as long as you keep the verb at the sentence’s end

If you learned and understood these five basic informations you already made a big step in learning Turkish. Actually Turkish is not a very complicated language. The only problem – if it might be one – is the pronounciation. But even that can be learned. And anyway just don’t be shy using what you learned. It can open hearts and an old turkish saying says:
Her dil insandır! = Every language is a human!

abece = the alphabet; İngilizce = English (the language!); bir = one, digit 1; dil = the language, the tongue; güneş = the sun; her = every; jandarma = the gendarmerie; insan = the human; otobüs = the bus; okul = the school; taksi = the taxi; Türkçe = Turkish (the language!); Van = a town in Turkey; yağmur = the rain

Lesson 02

2.1. VERBS

Turkish verbs always end on -mak or -mek. ALWAYS! There is no exception, isn’t that great? And now we arrived at the vowel harmony. What luck you hammered this vowel harmony into your head before. The endings -mak and -mek depend on the little vowel harmony. In detail:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u then the verb always ends with -mak. Logically in all other cases (e, i, ö or ü) the verb ends with -mek. Normally you learn the verbs simply in their basic form but it could be helpful to understand why one verb ends with -mak but the other with -mek.

yapmak = to do
çıkmak = to go out
bozmak = to break
uyumak = to sleep

sevmek = to love
getirmek = to bring
ölmek = to die
düşünmek = to think

Maybe it is getting more clear why there is a vowel harmony anyway. As the name says it’s about the harmony, in fact at speaking. It sounds more harmonical to say yapmak instead of “yapmek”. bilmek is also easier to speak out then “bilmak”. Even if it’s not that clear for you, don’t mind. Later it will be much more clear for you.

Well, now that you know the difference between the basic verb (infinitve) and the verb stem you know also how to form the…


The verb stem is automatically the infinitive for 2nd person singular:
yap! = do! (2nd person singular)
çık! = get out! (2nd person singular)
boz! = break!(2nd person singular – bozmak can also be used for changing money, making bills to coins)
uyu! = sleep! (2nd person singular)
sev! = love! (2nd person singular)
getir! = bring! (2nd person singular)
öl! = die! (2nd person singular – not very kind but primary this is about the grammar)
düşün! = think! (2nd person singular)

For forming the infinitve in 2nd person plural you just add the suffix -in.

ATTENTION! This suffix is related to the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, which means if the verb stem’s last vowel is an
a or ı, suffix -in changes to -ın
e or i, suffix -in stays unchanged
o or u, suffix -in changes to -un
ö or ü, suffix -in changes to -ün

yapın! = do!
çıkın! = go out!
bozun! = break!
uyuyun! = sleep!
sevin! = love!
getirin! = bring!
ölün! = die!
düşünün! = think!

Remember that in Turkish the 2nd person plural is also the polite form in which you speak to unknown or elder people or respected persons (like your boss). In daily language it’s not unpolite to speak to people in 2nd person singular (sen = you, 2nd person singular) when it’s obvious that they are of same age or younger. If you are not sure, just choose the polite form. The reaction of your conversation partner will let you know if you exaggerate… 😉

By the way: if a verb stem already ends with a vowel (like uyu-) we add a y prior to the suffix. You will notice that in such cases this happens often: If two vowels meet, the Turks prefers to separate these squabblers with a “y”.


Now you also learn how to negate an imperative as this can be realized easily. You only have to add -me oder -ma to the verb stem, depending on the Little Vowel Harmony. For our know verb examples this then looks as follows:

yapma! = don’t do! (2nd person singular)
çıkma! = don’t go out! (2nd person singular)
bozma! = don’t break! (2nd person singular)
uyuma! = don’t sleep! (2nd person singular)
sevme! = don’t love! (2nd person singular)
getirme! = don’t bring! (2nd person singular)
ölme! = don’t die! (2nd person singular)
düşünme! = don’t think! (2nd person singular)

Negating in 2nd person plural just requires putting -me/-ma in front of the suffix -in.
Notice, as two vowels cannot put next to each other, again an y has to be inserted between the two suffixes:

yapmayın! = don’t do! (2nd person plural)
çıkmayın! = don’t go out! (2nd person plural)
bozmayın! = don’t break! (2nd person plural)
uyumayın! = don’t sleep! (2nd person plural)
sevmeyin! = don’t love! (2nd person plural)
getirmeyin! = don’t bring! (2nd person plural)
ölmeyin! = don’t die! (2nd person plural)
düşünmeyin! = don’t think! (2nd person plural)

Maybe you noticed that the last suffixes now just are -in or -ın. It is still following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY but as the negation form just is either -ma or -me it can only follow -ın or -in. For example negating uyuyun cannot be “uyumayun” or düşünün cannot be “düşünmeyün” – sounds strange, even for a Turk.

açmak = to open; ağlamak = to cry; almak = to take; binmek = to get in, to board; bırakmak = to leave, to let go; bozmak = to break, to change money; çıkmak = to get out; düşünmek = to think; getirmek = to bring; gülmek = to laugh; ölmek = to die; sevmek = to love; uymak = to adapt yourself; vermek = to give; vurmak = to beat someone; yapmak = to make

 Lesson 03

Let’s go on with the simple things…


sıfır = 0
bir = 1
iki = 2
üç = 3
dört = 4
beş = 5
altı = 6
yedi = 7
sekiz = 8
dokuz = 9
on = 10

The next numbers then just are simple combinations:

on bir = 11
on iki = 12
on üç = 13

on dokuz = 19

Now the tenners, also just combinations:

yirmi = 20
yirmi bir = 21
yirmi iki = 22
yirmi üç = 23
yirmi dört = 24

otuz = 30
kırk = 40
elli = 50
altmış = 60
yetmiş = 70
seksen = 80
doksan = 90

yüz = 100
yüz bir = 101
yüz on bir = 111
yüz yirmi bir = 121
iki yüz = 200
üç yüz = 300

bin = 1,000
bin bir = 1,001
bin iki yüz doksan bir = 1,291
on bin = 10,000
yüz bin = 100,000
bir milyon = 1,000,000
iki milyon = 2,000,000
bir milyar = 1 billion


Learning the numbers also includes the ordinals. For this we need a new suffix:
-(i)nci (the vowel in bracks is just used if the number ends on a consonante).

The suffix depens on the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:

If last vowel is an a or ı the suffix must be -ıncı.
If last vowel is an e or i the suffix must be -inci.
If last vowel is an o or u the suffix must be -uncu.
If last vowel is an ö or ü the suffix must be -üncü.

birinci = 1st
ikinci = 2nd
üçüncü = 3rd
dördüncü = 4th (notice that t is modified to d)
beşinci = 5th
altıncı = 6th
yedinci = 7th
sekizinci = 8th
dokuzuncu = 9th
onuncu = 10th
on birinci = 11th

yirminci = 20th
otuzuncu = 30th
yüzüncü = 100th
milyonuncu = 1,000,000th
milyarıncı = billionth

Let’s have a closer look to dördüncü as you surely wondered why t changes to d. This is because of the “harmony”. There are the so called “Hard Consonantes” k, p and t. Always keeping them sometimes doesn’t sound “harmonic” for turkish ears. For example, it’s easier to speak out dördüncü instead of “dörtüncu”. Try it, which word is more fluently to speak? Exactly… But it’s also a question of feeling. With the time you get used to which sounds more harmonic as you develop a sense for the language.

Modification of “Hard Consonantes” is very usual so better get familiar with it.
But these three letters are not the only “Hard Consonantes”, there are also ç, f, h, s and ş. These consonantes are not getting modified but they harden the following suffix (depending on the suffix also after k, p and t). These will be more understandable in following lessons, but we mention it here, so you have a fair chance to get mentally prepared.


Forming the plural is almost as easy as in English. You just have to add a -lar or -ler, following the Little Vowel Harmony:
If last vowel is an a, ı, o or u then use -lar.
If last vowel is an e, i, ö or ü then use -ler.

araba = the car – arabalar = (the) cars
oda = the room – odalar = (the) rooms
çocuk = the child – çocuklar = (thee) children
pencere = the window – pencereler = (the) windows
kedi = the cat – kediler = (the) cats
(Remember that in Turkish there are no definite articles!)

BUT: If you indicate a quantity you don’t have to use the plural form anymore. What does that mean?

For example you say in English:
one car, two cars, three cars, a undefined quantity of cars… thus if the quantity of cars is more than one, in English you are forced to use the plural. Not so in Turkish:

bir araba = a car
arabalar = (we don’t know how many) cars
iki araba = two cars
üç araba = three cars

The Turk prefers the simple way and thinks: If anyway the number indicates that I speak about many cars, why forming additionally a plural?

Another hint: You can combine the plural also with names, which can be the description of a complete “clan” or group of people. This can be practical.
Mehmetler = the “Mehmets”, which can mean: brothers, sisters, father, mother of Mehmet or his (closest) friends, etc.
Mehmetler gelecek. = The Mehmets (Mehmet and his family) will come.
It’s even not unusual for English ears as it could be translated with: Mehmet and Co.


The expressions “there is” and “there is not” are used very often in Turkish.

var = there is
yok = there is not

That’s it, you don’t need more.

You in are shop and would like to buy vegetables. So you ask the vender:
Domates var mı? = Are there tomatoes?
(in this context it means something more like: Do you have tomatoes?)


In lesson 1 you have learned the personal pronouns ben, sen, o, biz, siz, onlar (I, you, he/she/it, we, you (plural), they). By adding another suffix you form the possessive pronouns:

benim = my
senin = your
onun = his/her/its
bizim = our
sizin = your (plural or polite form)
onların = their

Combinating with nouns these possessive pronouns never change.

benim araba = my car
senin akraba = your relative

But usually these possessive pronouns are not used but replaced by another suffix added to the noun. The pronouns itself are used to emphasize that something is YOURS, HIS, MY, etc… So without possessive pronouns it looks as follows:

arabam = my car
araban = your car
arabası = his/her/its car
arabamız = our car
arabanız = your (plural or polite form) car
arabası = their car

Explanation: The possessive suffixes are determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so the complete list looks as follows:
1st person singular: -(i)m / -(ı)m / -(u)m / -(ü)m
2nd person singular: -(i)n / -(ı)n / -(u)n / -(ü)n
3rd person singular: -(s)i / -(s)ı) / -(s)u / -(s)ü
1st person plural: -(i)miz / -(ı)mız / -(u)muz / -(ü)müz
2nd person plural: -(i)niz / -(ı)nız / -(u)nuz / -(ü)nüz
3rd prson plural: -(s)i / -(s)ı) / -(s)u / -(s)ü as in 3rd person singular)

In case the noun ends on a consonate you don’t need the letter in bracks:
arabası (his/her car), kedin (your cat), evimiz (our house), gülünüz (your (plural or polite form) rose), kitapları (his/her books)

In case of a proper name (names, towns, countries) you separate the suffix with an apostrophe:
İngiltere’si... (England’s…), İstanbul’u… (Istanbul’s…), Lale’si... (Lale’s…)

Another example but already anticipated with a genitive construction:
Mehmet’in arabası. = Mehmet’s car. Literally: Of Mehmet his car…(Mehmet’in is a genitive construction)).

In next lesson we are going to deal with all cases. Then this example sentence will be more clear.

By the way: As in English in Turkish proper nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning. Apart from that in you write always with small letters – except on a sentence’s beginning of course!


3.6.1 Questions with “mi
With mi you have the possibility of forming simple questions. These are just simple yes/no questions.

Gelecek mi? = Will he/she/it come? – This question can be answered with yes or no, “from where” or “to where” doesn’t matter.

Depending on in which person you are asking, mi gets modified:
miyim = referring to myself => Gelecek miyim? = Will I come?
misin = referring to you => Gelecek misin? = Will you come?
mi = referring to him/her/it => Gelecek mi? = Will he/she/it come?
miyiz = referring to us => Gelecek miyiz = Will we come?
misiniz = referring to you (plural) => Gelecek misiniz? = Will you (plural) come?
mi = referring to them ==> Gelecekler mi? = Will they come?

The verb is always in 3rd person and you adjust mi accordingly to the related person (except in 3rd person as mi is already the 3rd person question particle). In plural 3rd person the verb of course has to be modified to plural form, but mi itself remains unchanged.

Important to know that mi is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an a or ı, then mi changes to
(=>accordingly mıyım, mısın, mı, mıyız, mısınız, mı)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an e or i, then mi remains unchanged
(=>accordingly miyim, misin, mi, miyiz, misiniz, mi)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an o or u, then mi changes to mu
(=>accordingly muyum, musun, mu, muyuz, musunuz, mu)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an ö or ü,then mi changes to
(=>accordingly müyüm, müsün, mü, müyüz, müsünüz, mü)

Sigaran var mı? =Do you have a cigarette? (literally: Is there your cigarette?)
Kaleminiz var mı? = Do you (plural) have a pen? (literally: Is there your pen?)
Kalıyor musun? = Do you stay?
(Note: These examples include already the possessiv pronuns and Continuous Present which will be explained in later. Here it’s just about the mi.)

3.6.2 Other interrogative words

Kim? = Who? – Example: O kim? or Kim o? = Who is this?
Ne? = What? – Example: Ne yapıyorsun? = What are you doing?
Nerede? = Where? – Example: Kitap nerede? = Where is the book?
Nereye? = Where to? – Example: Nereye gidiyorsun? = Where are you going?
Neden? or Niye? = Why? – Example: Neden/Niye gittin? = Why did you go?
Nasıl? = How? – Example: Nasıl dinleniyoruz? = How do we rest?
Hangi? = Which? – Example: Hangi araba? = Welches Auto?
Kaç? or Ne kadar? = How much/many? Example: Fiyatı ne kadar/kaç? = How much is it? (literally: Its price is how much?)

açmak = to open; akraba = the relative; araba = the car; çocuk = the child; dinlenmek = to rest, to relax; domates = the tomato; ev = the house; fiyat = the price; gül = the rose; hangi = which; İngiltere = England; kaç = how much; kalem = the pen; kedi = the cat; kim = who; kitap = the book; nasıl = how; ne = what; ne kadar = how much; neden = why; nerede = where; nereye = whereto; niye = why; oda = the room; pencere = the window; sigara = the cigarette; var = there is/existent; yok = there is not/not existent


Lesson 04



The nominativ is just as in English the basic noun:

araba = the car
oda = the room
pencere = the window

Remember, in Turkish there is no definite article, just the indefinite article bir = a.

4.2.1 Who or What?
The accusative answers the question for “Who?” oder “What?”.
For this you need the suffix -i which is following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY . Therefore the suffix can be:
-ı, -i, -u, -ü

Peyniri verir misin? = Do you pass me the cheese? (What do you pass me?)
Çayı içiyoruz. = We are drinking the tea. (What are we drinking?)
Sütü getirdim. = brought the milk. (What did I bring?)

4.2.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
Some words end with the so called “Hard Consonantes” k, p and t. Do you remember the note in lesson 3.2? These consonantes have to be modified to ğ, b and d when followed by the accusative suffix.
Mektubu aldın mı? = Did you receive the letter?
mektup (= the letter) actually ends with p which has to be “softened” to a b.

Müziği duymuyorum. = I don’t hear the music.
müzik (= the music) ends with k which is to be changed to ğ

4.2.3 Vowel Ending
If the noun ends with a vocal, y has to be inserted.
Odayı gördün mü? = Did you see the room?
Lütfen kapıyı kapat. = Please close the door.

BUT: If the vocal ending results from a possessive suffix or pronoun, then you DON’T insert y, but n:

Peyniri verir misin? = Do you pass me THE cheese?
Onun peynirini verir misin? = Do you pass me HER/HIS cheese?

Use first the possessive pronoun with its related possessive suffix (blue), then add the accusative suffix (green) connected with an n, not y.
Onun peyniriyi verir misin? would be therefore wrong!

We recommend you to use always the possessive pronoun when speaking in 3rd person plural (onun/onlarin). This way you make sure that there is no mix up of accussative suffix with possessive suffix, as they are the same when ending on a vowel:
bisikleti… on its own could mean “the bicycle” in accusative or “his/her bicycle” as possessive. Usually the intended meaning results from the context of the sentences.

4.2.4 Proper Nouns
You have to add an apostrophe to separate the noun from the suffix.
Mehmet’i gördüm. = I saw Mehmet.
Türkçe’yi öğreniyorum. = I’m learning (the) Turkish (language).

4.2.5 Accusative Pronouns
The accusative pronouns of personal pronouns are:
beni = me
seni = you (famous example: Seni seviyorum. = I love you.)
onu = him/her/it
bizi = us
sizi = you (plural or polite form)
onları = them

4.3.1 Whom?… or Whereto?
Usually dative answers the question for “Whom?”. Additionally in Turkish the dative form is also used for “Whereto?”. Therefore dative in Turkish is frequently used with verbs expressing movement. Here we need the suffx -e/-a, determined by the Little Vowel Harmony:

Eve gidiyorum. = I’m going home. (Whereto?)
Havuza gidiyor. = He/she goes to the swimming bath.(Whereto?)
Ona anlatacağım. = I will tell it to him/her. (Whom?)

4.3.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
As well as in accusative the consonantes are modified. ç, k, p and t prior to the suffix are softended to c, ğ, b and d:
Çocuğa bir masalı okudum. = I read a fairy tale to the child.

4.3.3 Vowel Ending
If the noun ends with a vocal, y has to be inserted.
Masaya koydum. = I’ve put in on the tabel. (Where?)
Lokantaya gidiyor. = He/she/it goes to the cookshop. (Whereto?)

… except the vowel ending results from a possessive. Then again you insert an n insteat of a y:
Onun masasına koydum. = I’ve put it on his/her table.

4.3.4 Proper Nouns
You have to add an apostrophe to separate the noun from the suffix.
Deniz’e güveniyorum. = I trust in Deniz.

4.3.5 Dative Pronouns
The dative pronouns are:
bana = me (Example: Bana verir misin? = Do you give me?)
sana = you
ona = him/her/it
bize = us
size = you (plural or polite form)
onlara = them

4.4.1 Whose?
Genitive is the answer to “Whose?”. You already know a genitive construction from the example in lesson 3.5:
Mehmet’in arabası. = literal translation: Of Mehmet his car? (Whose car?)

Genitive is formed with the suffix -in. And as it is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY it can change to:
-ın, -in, -un, -ün.

Some example sentences (green the genitive suffix, blue the according possessive suffix which is familiar to you from lesson 3.5):
bakkalın penceresi = the shop’s window (whose window)
onun saçları = his/her hair (whose hair?)

4.4.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
As well as in accusative the consonantes are modified. ç, k, p and t prior to the suffix are softended to c, ğ, b and d:
bisikletin tekerleği = the bicycle’s tyre respectively simply: the bicycle tyre – tekerlek ends actually on k, but is to be softened to ğ prior to the suffix.

4.4.3 Vowel Ending
If the noun ends with a vocal, n has to be inserted. So this time it’s not a y.
odanın kapısı = the room door (the room’s door)

4.4.4 Proper Nouns
As usual an apostrophe separates the suffix from the noun:
Türkiye’nin plajları = the Turkey beaches (the beaches of Turkey)

4.4.5 Exceptions in Genitive
Well, there is an exception: After some words with vowel ending you have to insert y instead of n as mentioned in 4.4.3:
su = water and
ne = what.

Suyun rengi mavidir. = The colour of water is blue.
-dir in mavidir is a “to be” construction you still don’t know. We will come back to this later. k in renk (= the colour) has been softened to g instead ğ, which in this case is an exception, too.
Neyin faydası? = The advantage of what?

Why these exceptions? It’s obvious: to make it not too easy for foreigners to learn Turkish. A piece of exclusivty should be kept.

4.5.1 From where, from who or from what?
The ablative is the contrary of dative. With the ablative you answer the questions “from where?”, “from who?” and “from what?”. The ablative is formed with -den/-dan, depending on the Little Vowel Harmony.

Evden çıkıyorum. = I’m going out of the house.
Lokantadan geliyor. = He/she/it comes from the cookshop.

4.5.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
If a word ends on a hard consonante there is NO softening. This time the following suffix gets hardened, so -den/-dan is modified to -ten/-tan . This rule is valid for all hard consonantes ç, f, h, k, p, s, ş and t:
Kitaptan öğrendim. = I learned from the book.

4.5.3 Proper Nouns
An apostrophe separates the suffix from the noun:
Mehmet’ten çakmağı aldim. = I received the fire lighter from Mehmet.
İstanbul’dan geliyorum. = I’m coming from Istanbul.

4.6.1 Where?
And finally we also have to be able to answer the question “where?”, which leads us to the locative. This is to be formed with the suffix -de/-da determined by the Little Vowel Harmony.

Lokantada. = In the cookshop.
Evde. = In the house.

4.6.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
Also here the following suffixe have to be hardened, so -de/-da are then -te/-ta:
Sokakta. = On the street.

4.6.3 Proper Nouns
Once again insert an apostrophe to separate the suffix :
İngiltere’de. = In England.
Mehmet’te. = At Mehmet.

4.6.4 Remarks to the Locative
a) The locative suffix -de/-da is not to be mixed up with the word de or da which means “too”. It is a single word following the Little Vowel Harmony.

Mehmet de evde. = Mehmet is at home, too.
O da lokantada. = He/she/it is in the cookshop, too.
Ben de gidiyorum. = I go, too.

  1. b) The locative can be combined with var/yok as well as with the question particle mi:
    Antalya’da plaj var mı? = Is there a beach in Antalya, too?
  2. c) The location prepositions are also connected with the locative:
    nerede = where? which you already know. Furthermore:
    burada = here
    şurada = there (visible)
    orada = (over) there (not visible anymore)

Colloquially these prepositions are sometims shortend to
nerde, burda, şurda and orda.
Burda plaj yok. = Here is no beach.
Ama orda havuz var. = But over there is a swimming bath.


Forming the different case suffixes it’s important to know that not the way of writing but the pronounciation determines the suffixes. This remark especially refers to non-turkish names. The following examples should clarify what this means:

Burbanks’de. = In Burbanks.
=> The last vowel in Burbanks is an a, nevertheless the Turk would use de and not “da”, because of the way the a is spoken which determines the suffix de.
Burbanks’den (instead of ‘dan). = From Burbanks.
Burbanks’e (instead of ‘a). = To Burbanks.

anlatmak = to tell; bakkal = the grocery shop; bisiklet = the bicycle; çakmak = the fire lighter; çay = the tea; de/da = too; duymak = to hear; fayda = the advantage; görmek = to see; güvenmek = to trust; havuz = the swimming bath; içmek = to drink; kapatmak = to close; kapı = the door; koymak = to put, to place; lokanta = the cookshop, place where you can eat snacks; lütfen = please; masa = the table; masal = the fairy tale; mavi = blue; mektup = the letter; müzik = the music; öğrenmek = to learn; öğretmek = to teach; okumak = to read – also: to study; peynir = the cheese; plaj = the beach; renk = the colour; saç = the hair; sokak = the street; su = the water; süt = the milk; tekerlek = the tyre

Lesson 05


5.1 “TO BE”

In order to be something in Turkish you need following suffixes:
1st person singular (I am): -(y)im / -(y)ım / -(y)um / -(y)ün
2nd person singular (you are): -sin / -sın / -sun / -sün
3rd person singular (he/she/it is): -dir / -dır / -dur / -dür
1st person plural (we are): -(y)iz / (y)ız / -(y)uz / -(y)üz
2nd person plural (you are): -siniz / -sınız / -sunuz / -sünüz
3rd person plural (they are): -dirler / -dırlar / -durlar / -dürler

These suffixes follow the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY.

The letter y is put in bracks as it is only used if the word ends on a vowel.
Ususally the suffix is not used in 3rd person. For reasons of completeness we mentioned it anyway. Some example sentences:

İyiyim. = I’m good. (which has two meanings, “to be good” in the meaning of “good and evil” or “to be good, fine” as response to “how are you?”)
İyisin. = Your’re good.
İyi(dir). = He/she/it is fine.
İyiyiz. = We’re good.
İyisiniz. = You’re (plural or polite form) good.
İyi(dirler). = They’re good.

Kötüsün. = You’re bad.
Hastayım. = I’m ill.

As usual proper nouns are separated with an apostrophe:
İstanbul’dur. = This is Istanbul.
Mehmet’im. = I’m Mehmet.

Examples in combination with the locative:
Evdeyim. = I’m at home.
Türkiye’deyiz. = We’re in Turkey.
Lokantada(dır). = He/she/it is in the cookshop.

The suffix for “to be” is a verb. Remember that verbs should always be put a the sentence’s end? Here the sentences consist only of one word but still the verb (suffix) remains at the end.

Also you can combine with the known interrogative words:
Nasılsın? = How are you?
Kimsiniz? = Who are you (plural or polite form)?
Nerdeyiz? = Where are we?


To express “not to be” you need an additional word: değil.
This is placed before the “to be” suffix. If you use for instance an adjective like iyi or hasta, this remains unchanged and you put değil after it, extended by the accordig “to be” suffix.

İyi değil(ler). = They’re not good.
Kötü değilsin. = You’re not bad.
Hasta değilim. = I’m not ill.
Evde değilim. = I’m not at home.
Türkiye’de değiliz. = We’re not in Turkey.
Lokantada değil(dir). = He/she/it isn’t in the cookshop.


Turkish doesn’t offer an explicit verb for “to have”. Instead it is a combination of possessive suffixes and var/yok. As you already know both components, you therefore know how “to have something” in Turkish: :

Bisikletim var. = I have a bicycle. – literally: My bicycele is existent.
Cep telefonu yok. = He/she has a mobile. – literally: His/her mobile is not existent.

Also you already know this construction possessive + var/yok related to the interrogative particle mi (examples in lesson 3.6.1):
Sigaran var mı? = Do you have a cigarette?
Kaleminiz var mı? = Do you (plural or polite form) have a pen?

bu = this; büyük = big; cep = the pocket; cep telefonu = the mobile, cell phone; çanta = the bag; hasta = ill; iyi = good; kötü = bad, evil; küçük = small; poşet = the shopping bag; şu = this

Lesson 06



Definition: An action which is taking place just in this moment. This form is equal to the English present continuous (-ing form).

Formed with the suffix -(i)yor.

This suffix follows the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
If the last vowel in verb stem is an a or ı, you change -iyor to -ıyor.
If the last vowel in verb stem is an e or i, -iyor remains unchanged.
If the last vowel in verb stem is an o or u, you change -iyor to -uyor.
If the last vowel in verb stem is anö or ü, you change -iyor to -üyor.

The vowels i, ı, u und ü are put in bracks because they only occur if the verb stem ends on a consonante.

Additionally to the suffix for –(i)yor-present you have to add the personal pronoun suffix. It is similar to the forms you learned in lesson 5.1 “to be” – with two exceptions in each 3rd person:

-(i)yorum = 1st person singular I
-(i)yorsun = 2nd person singular you
-(i)yor = ATTENTION! Here there is no personal pronoun suffix as the basic (i)yor-form is already 3rd person singular he/she/it
-(i)yoruz = 1st person plural we
-(i)yorsunuz = 2nd person plural you (or polite form)
-(i)yorlar = 3rd person plural they

yapmak = to do (=> verb stem yap-):
yapıyorum = I’m doing
yapıyorsun = you’re doing
yapıyor = he/she/it is doing
yapıyoruz = we’re doing
yapıyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) doing
yapıyorlar = they’re doing

The personal pronuns (ben, sen, o, etc.) usually are just used for emphasizing:
ben yapıyorum = ICH mache gerade!

Another example:
düşünmek = to think (=> verb stem düşün-):
düşünüyorum = I’m thinking
düşünüyorsun = you’re thinking
düşünüyor = he/she/it is thinking
düşünüyoruz = we’re thinking
düşünüyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) thinking
düşünüyorlar = they’re thinking

Another verb which is often used makes an exception when using the (i)yor-present:
demek = to say (=> verb stem de- but):
diyorum = I’m saying
diyorsun = you’re saying
diyor = he/she/it is saying
diyoruz = we’re saying
diyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) saying
diyorlar = they’re saying

The e of the verb stem is getting transfered into an i. This way the word can be speaken more easily, instead of “deyorum”. The same happens with the verb yemek = to eat:
yiyorum, yiyorsun,


In Lesson 2 you learned that all turkish verbs end with -mak or -mek. For negating the infinitive you have to add -ma/-me directly in front of -mak/-mek:
yapmak = to do ==> yapmamak = not to do
vermek = to give ==> vermemek = not to give

Now, to negate the turkish continuous present we just need a single letter: -m. This is to be added prior to the suffix -(i)yor and it looks then like this: -miyor. Simple, isn’t it? A single letter just changes the meaning of a sentence…

yapmıyorum = I’m not doing
yapmıyorsun = you’re not doing
yapmıyor = he/she/it is not doing
yapmıyoruz = we’re not doing
yapmıyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) not doing
yapmıyorlar = they’re not doing

düşünmüyorum = I’m not thinking
düşünmüyorsun = you’re not thinking
düşünmüyor = he/she/it is not thinking
düşünmüyoruz = we’re not thinking
düşünmüyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) not thinking
düşünmüyorlar = they’re not thinking


In Turkish simple present is used to express something which takes place regularly or which is basically true. For example: every day you go to work, to school, to university, etc.

This present is formed with the suffix -(i)r.

The suffix is determined by GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a or ı, -ir changes to -ır.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e or i, -ir remains unchanged.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an o or u, -ir changes to -ur.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an ö or ü, -ir changes to -ür.

The suffixes for personal pronouns now change, too still following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY: :
1st person singular: -ırım / -irim / -urum / -ürüm
2nd person singular: -ırsın / -irsin / -ursun / -ürsün
3rd person singular: -ır / -ir / -ur / -ür (no additional suffix as basic -ir is already the 3rd person singular)
1st person plural : -ırız / -iriz / -uruz / -ürüz
2nd person plural: -ırsınız / -irsiniz / -ursunuz / -ürsünüz
3rd person plural: -ırlar / -irler / -urlar / -ürler

düşünmek = to think (=> verb stem düşün-)
düşünürüm = I think
düşünürsün = you think
düşünür = he/she/it thinks
düşünürüz = we think
düşünürsünüz = you (plural or polite form) think
düşünürler = they think

konuşmak = to talk (=> verb stem konuş-)
konuşurum = I talk
konuşursun = you talk
konuşur = he/she/it talk
konuşuruz = we talk
konuşursunuz = you (plural or polite form) talk
konuşurlar = they talk

ATTENTION, exceptions! They are some verb stems which carry only one syllable. This leads to a transformation of suffix -ir to -er or -ar (Little Vowel Harmoy)
yapmak = to do (=> verb stem yap-)
yaparım = I do
yaparsın = you do
yapar = he/she/it do
yaparız = we do
yaparsınız = you (plural or polite form) do
yaparlar = they do

dövmek = to beat up (=> verb stem döv-)
döverim = I beat up
döversin = you beat up
döver = he/she/it beat up
döveriz = we beat up
döversiniz = you (plural or polite form) beat up
döverler = they beat up

BUT: Also the monosyllabic verb stems have exceptions, which means that the suffix for these verbs has NOT to be changed from -ir into -er/-ar:
almak = to take (alırım, alırsın, alır, …)
bilmek = to know (bilirim, bilirsin, bilir, …)
bulmak = to find (bulurum, bulursun, bulur, …)
durmak = to stop (dururum, durursun,…)
gelmek = to come (gelirim, gelirsin,…)
görmek = to see (görürüm, görürsün,…)
kalmak = to stay (kalırım, kalırsın,…)
olmak = to become (olurum, olursun,…)
ölmek = to die (ölürüm, ölürsün,…)
sanmak = to believe, to suppose (sanırım, sanırsın,…)
varmak = to arrive (varırım, varırsın,…)
vermek = to give (veririm, verirsin,…)
vurmak = to beat (vururum, vurursun,…)

You therefore have to keep 13 monosyllabic verb stems in mind as they make the exception of the exception – and therefore are regular again. We summarize:
1) One-syllable verb stems cause change of suffix -ir into -er/-ar.
2) Except for the 13 above mentioned verbs.

At least we present you now a real exception:
gitmek = to go (=> verb stem git-)
giderim = I go
gidersin = you go
gider = he/she/it go
gideriz = we go
gidersiniz = you (plural or polite form) go
giderler = they go

-ir is changed to -er because it’s a monosyllabic word and t is softened to d. You could say now this is because t is a hard consonante. But:
atmak = to throw (=> verb stem at-)
atarım = I throw
atarsın = you throw
atar = he/she/it throw
atarız = we throw
atarsınız = you (plural or polite form) throw
atarlar = they throw

Here again a monosyllabic verb stem with an ending on a hard consonante. But this time there is no softening. Therefore gitmek is a real irregular verb. But no language without irregulations. Anyway it is also more easy to say gidersin instead of “gitersin”, isn’t it?
There is another verb where you soften t to d:
etmek = functional verb for “to do something”
Example: telefon etmek = to call on the phone – literally: to use the phone (telefon ederim = I call on the phone respectively I use the phone)

By the way, also in the Continuous Present you soften t in gitmek and etmek to d, which makes gidiyorum,… respectively ediyorum,…

In general in Turkish this present tense is also called “Aorist”, though in other languages this expression is used for past tenses. But actually you don’t have to focus on that. More important is to know how and when you use this tense.


Of course there is also a negation for the present tense. Instead of the suffix -ir you now use the suffix -ma(z)/me(z) (Little Vowel Harmony) extended again by the according peronal pronoun suffix. The “z” is put into bracks as it is not used in each 1st person.

yapmam = I don’t do
yapmazsın = you don’t do
yapmaz = he/she/it doesn’t do
yapmayız = we don’t do
yapmazsınız = you (plural or polite form) don’t do
yapmazlar = they don’t do

düşünmem = I don’t think
düşünmezsin = you don’t think
düşünmez = he/she/it don’t think
düşünmeyiz = we don’t think
düşünmezsiniz = you (plural or polite form) don’t think
düşünmezler = they don’t think

atmak = to throw; bulmak = to find; demek = to say; dövmek = to beat up; durmak = to stop; etmek = functional verb to use; gelmek = to come; görmek = to see; kalmak = to stay; konmak = to land; olmak = to become; sanmak = to believe, to suppose; varmak = to achieve, to arrive; yemek = to eat – or: the meal; yenmek = to win over


Lesson 07



The simple past describes actions which are completed, for example actions which happened yesterday, last week or longer time ago. So it is the tense for “experienced and/or narrated past”.

Formed with the suffix –di it is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so it can be
-dı, -di, -du or -dü.

bilmek = to known (=> verb stem bil-)
bildim = I knew
bildin = you knew
bildi = he/she/it knew
bildik = we knew
bildiniz = you (plural or polite form) knew
bildiler = they knew

As you may have noticed in 1st person plural the personal pronoun suffix now ends with a “k” instead of “z”.

Of course also in this tense the famous “Hard Consonantes” use their influence. But this time they don’t get softened. Do you remember the hint in lesson 3.2? Some suffixes get hardened when a word ends with one of the hard consonantes. Therefore the simple past suffix has to pass a two fisted training in order to being able standing these consonantes and is changed to -ti:

yaptım = I did
yaptın = you did
yaptı = he/she/it did
yaptık = we did
yaptınız = you (plural or polite form) did
yaptılar = they did

Also here it might be more clear that it’s more easy to speak out yaptım instead of “yapdım”. Otherwise it would just sound too… hmmm… just too soft!

Another example:
çalışmak = to work (=> verb stem çalış-)
çalıştım = I worked
çalıştın = you worked
çalıştı = he/she/it worked
çalıştık = we worked
çalıştınız = you (plural or polite forem) worked
çalıştılar = they worked

At the same time the suffix -di is also to past form of “to be”:
büyüktü = he/she/it was big

When ending on a vowel insert a y:
hastaydı = he/she/it was ill

Furthermore you probably had or had not something in the past:
Arabam vardı. = I had a car.
Arabam yoktu. = I didn’t have a car.


Short and painless: Negation of simple past is made by the suffix -ma/-me which is put in front of the past tense suffix:

yapmadım = I didn’t do
yapmadın = you didn’t do
yapmadı = he/she/it didn’t do
yapmadık = we didn’t do
yapmadınız = you (plural or polite form) didn’t do
yapmadılar = they didn’t do

This time the –di suffix doesn’t have to be hardened as it is “protected” by the negation particle.

Another particle:
düşünmedim = I didn’t think
düşünmedin = you didn’t think
düşünmedi = he/she/it didn’t think
düşünmedik = we didn’t think
düşünmediniz = you (plural or polite form) didn’t think
düşünmediler = they didn’t think

Remember: “to be” in Turkish is negated with değil. So then -di as the past suffix of “to be”:
büyük değildi = he/she/it wasn’t big


With this past tense you describe exactly the same as in English: an action which was about to take place but wasn’t completed. So it is the past counterpart to the continuous present (-iyor). You were about to do something as something else happened.

Formed with the suffix -(i)yordu.

As this suffix follows GREAT VOWEL HARMONY it can have following forms: -ıyordu, -iyordu, -uyordu or -üyordu.

biliyordum = I was knowing
biliyordun = you were knowing
biliyordu = he/she/it was knowing
biliyorduk = we were knowing
biliyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) were knowing
biliyordular = they were knowing

yapıyordum = I was doing
yapıyordun = you were doing
yapıyordu = he/she/it was doing
yapıyorduk = we were doing
yapıyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) were doing
yapıyordular = they were doing

Example sentence:
Lale’yi düşünüyordum. Telefon çaldı. = I was thinking of Lale as the phone rang.

A certain action was taking place (thinking of Lale) as another action interrupted (the ringing of the phone).


For negation you need to put the letter -m in front of the past suffix:

bilmiyordum = I wasn’t knowing
bilmiyordun = you weren’t knowing
bilmiyordu = he/she/it wasn’t knowing
bilmiyorduk = we weren’t knowing
bilmiyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) weren’t knowing
bilmiyordular = they weren’t knowing

yapmıyordum = I wasn’t doing
yapmıyordun = you weren’t doing
yapmıyordu = he/she/it wasn’t doing
yapmıyorduk = we weren’t doing
yapmıyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) weren’t doing
yapmıyordular = they weren’t doing

büyütmek = to extend, to exaggerrate; çalmak = to ring, but also: to steal; çalışmak = to work; dalmak = to dive; doldurmak = to fill in; kum = the sand; restoran = the restaurant; şemsiye = the sunshade; yazmak = to write; yüzmek = to swim






Lesson 08


The future describes same as in English an action which did not happen yet but is going to happen.

Formed with the suffix -ecek/-acak.

Suffix determined by the Little Vowel Harmony:
If last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö or ü the suffix is -ecek.
If last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u the suffix is -acak.

… and with the personal pronoun suffixes it looks as follows:

bileceğim = I’m going to know
bileceksin = you’re going to know
bilecek = he/she/it is going to know
bileceğiz = we’re going to know
bileceksiniz = you’re (plural) going to know
bilecekler = they’re going to know

In each 1st person the “hard consonante” k is softened into ğ. The reason once again is the harmony in speaking: it is softer to say bileceğim instead of “bilecekim”. The ğ prolongues the e as explained in lesson 1 referring to the alphabet (it therefore sounds more like “bilecea-im”).

yapacağım = i’m going to make
yapacaksın = you’re going to make
yapacak = he/she/it is going to make
yapacağız = we’re going to make
yapacaksınız = you’re going to make
yapacaklar = they’re going to make

In colloquial language/writing the 1st person can be shortened, for example: instead of yapacağım / yapacağız you write yapacam / yapacaz (often used in letters, sms messages, etc.).


By inserting -me/-ma before the future suffix you negate the verb. Accordingly it is then -mayacak or -meyecek (insertion of y after a vowel):

bilmeyeceğim = I’m not going to know
bilmeyeceksin = you’re not going to know
bilmeyecek = he/she/it is not going to know
bilmeyeceğiz = we’re not going to know
bilmeyeceksiniz = you’re (plural) not going to know
bilmeyecekler = they’re not going to know

yapmayacağım = I’m not going to make
yapmayacaksın = you’re not going to make
yapmayacak = he/she/it is not going to make
yapmayacağız = we’re not going to make
yapmayacaksınız = you’re (plural) not going to make
yapmayacakler = they’re not going to make

ayırtmak = to reserve; izin = the vacation (or: the permission); gelecek zaman =the future; gezinti = the walk; gezmek = to walk, promenade; girmek = to walk in, to join; kullanmak = to use (e.g. a car = driving); seyahat = the journey; tatil = the holidays; yer = the location, place; yer ayırtma = the seat reservation; yolculuk = the travel, voyage

Lesson 09


The undefined past describes like the simple past an action which has been completed – with a small but important difference: you don’t tell “first hand” as you didn’t have been there when the action occured. Someone else told us his story and we re-tell it. This tense is very typical for jokes, fairy tales and stories.

Formed with the suffix –miş.

This suffix is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY which means it can have the forms
-mış, -miş, -muş and -müş.

bilmişim = I knew (it might appear difficult to tell “2nd hand” that you knew something, but it can be translated with “I was supposed to know” because so has been told…)
bilmişsin = you knew (so has been told…)
bilmiş = he/she/it knew
bilmişiz = we knew
bilmişsiniz = you (plural) knew
bilmişler = they knew

yapmışım = I made (“I was supposed to make” because so has been told…)
yapmışsın = you made
yapmış = he/she/it made
yapmışız = we made
yapmışsınız = you (plural) made
yapmışlar = they made

The suffix -miş is at the same time the to be-suffix in the undefined past:
büyükmüş = he/she/it was big

When ending on a vowel you have to insert an y:
hastaymış = he/she/it was ill

To have in the undefined past:
Arabası varmış. = He/she/it had a car.
Arabası yokmuş. = He/she/it hadn’t a car.


For negating the suffix you need to insert once again -ma/-me in before the suffix –miş:

bilmemişim = I didn’t (wasn’t supposed to) know
bilmemişsin = you didn’t know
bilmemiş = he/she/it didn’t know
bilmemişiz = we didn’t know
bilmemişsiniz = you (plural) didn’t know
bilmemişler = they didn’t know

yapmamışım = I didn’t (wasn’t supposed to) make
yapmamışsın = you didn’t make
yapmamış = he/she/it didn’t make
yapmamışız = we didn’t make
yapmamışsınız = you didn’t make
yapmamışler = they didn’t make

Remember: “to be” is negated with değil:
büyük değilmiş =he/she/it wasn’t big (… wasn’t supposed to be big)

adam = the man, human; ama = but; altın = the gold; çok = much, many; geçirmek = to pass; gün = the day; insan = the fellow, human; insanlık = the humanity; İrlanda = Ireland; kadın = the woman; kişi = the person; köy = the village; pahalı = expensive

Lesson 10


In Turkish there are THREE possibilities to express the need or due to do something.

10.1.1 “-meli/-malı”

-meli/-malı is determined by the Little Vowel Harmony.

gitmeliyim = I have to go
gitmelisin = you have to go
gitmeli = he/she/it has to go
gitmeliyiz = we have to go
gitmelisiniz = you (plural) have to go
gitmeliler = they have to go

Also you can put this form of expressing need into the two known past tenses (above samples are in present tense). Notice that an y is inserted:

di-past / miş-past
gitmeliydim = I had to go / gitmeliymişim = I was supposed to have to go
gitmeliydin / gitmeliymişsin
gitmeliydi / gitmeliymiş
gitmeliydik / gitmeliymişiz
gitmeliydiniz / gitmeliymişsiniz
gitmeliydiler / gitmeliymişler

10.1.2 Negation of “-meli/-malı”

For negation you have to insert -me/-ma (Little Vowel Harmony).

gitmemeliyim = I don’t have to go
gitmemelisin = you don’t have to go
gitmemeli = he/she/it doesn’t have to go
gitmemeliyiz = we don’t have to go
gitmemelisiniz = you (plural) don’t have to go
gitmemeliler = they don’t have to go

You can use the negation form -memeli/-mamalı also to say something in the sense of “should not”.

Bugün eve kalmamalısın. = You shouldn’t stay at home today.
Yarın çalışmamalıyım. = I shouldn’t work tomorrow.

10.1.3 “Lazım”

lazım actually means “necessary” and is an unchangeable word in a combination which expresses the need of doing something. As part of this combination you add the suffix -me/ma (Little Vowel Harmony) and a possessive suffix to the verb. You already know -me/ma as a negation particle but here it fulfills another function.

Gitmem lazım. = I have to go. – literally: My going is necessary.
Gitmen lazım. = You have to go.
Gitmesi lazım. = He/she/it has to go.
Gitmemiz lazım. = We have to go.
Gitmeniz lazım. = You (plural) have to go.
Gitmeleri lazım. = They have to go.

Another example:
Bunu yapmam lazım. = I have to do this.
Bunu yapman lazım. = You have to do this.
Bunu yapması lazım. = He/she/it has to do this.
Bunu yapmamız lazım. = We have to do this.
Bunu yapmanız lazım. = You (plural) have to do this.
Bunu yapmaları lazım. = They have to do this.

10.1.4 Negation of “lazım”

The negation is very simple. As lazım is unchangeable you need another word for negating it: değil.
Gitmem lazım değil. = I don’t have to go.
Bunu yapmam lazım değil. = I don’t have to do this.

10.1.5 “Gerekmek”

The third option to express need to do something is offered with the verb gerekmek which directly could be translated “must”. Also like in combination with lazım you add -me/-ma and a possessive suffix to the verb.

Gitmem gerekiyor. = I have to go.
Gitmen gerekiyor. = You have to go.
Gitmesi gerekiyor. = He/she/it has to go.
Gitmemiz gerekiyor. = We have to go.
Gitmeniz gerekiyor. = You (plural) have to go.
Gitmeleri gerekiyor. = They have to go.

In this example we used gerekmek in (i)yor-present tense. gerekmek always is put into the 3rd person singular, as it refers to the “doing” itself, not to the person who acts. You can combine also in the other so far known tenses.

PAST: Dün akşam eve gitmem gerekti. = Yesterday evening I had to go home..

FUTURE: Yarın havalimanına gitmem gerekecek. = Tomorrow I’m going to have to go to the airport..

İR-PRESENT: Her gün okula gitmem gerek. = Everyday I have to go to school.

Maybe you ask now “where is the ir-suffix?”. It’s not necessary as in this present tense the verb stem of gerekmek is sufficient to express the need.

Actually you could also blank out the other tense suffixes as the words dün and yarın already indicate when the actions take place.

10.1.6 Negation of “gerekmek”

For negating gerekmek you need the additional suffix -m(e), in infinitive form: gerekmemek.

Gitmesi gerekmiyor. = He/she/it hasn’t to go.
Dün eve gitmem gerekmedi. = Yesterday I hadn’t to go home.
Yarın havalimanına gitmen gerekmeyecek. = Tomorrow you’re not going to have to go to the airport.


If you like to propose a certain action, Turkish offers the optative. It sounds like a additional case but it isn’t. For using the optative you need the suffix -e)yim/-(e)lim. It is only used for each 1st person (singular and plural) and follows the Little Vowel Harmony:

1st person singular:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u the suffix is -(a)yım.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö oder ü the suffix is -(e)yim.

2nd person plural:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o oder u the suffix is -(a)lım.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö oder ü the suffix is -(e)lim.

e/a in bracks is only added if the verb stem ends on a consonante.

Ona sorayım. = Let me ask him/her.
Or as a question with particle mi:
Ona sorayım mı? = Shall I ask him/her?

Hadi, gidelim. = Come on, let’s go.
Gidelim mi? = Shall we go?

büro = the office; değil = (be) not; dinlemek = to listen; dün = yesterday; gerekmek = to must; havalimanı (or havaalanı) = the airport; İspanya = Spain; lazım = necessary; liman = the (sea) port; sormak = to ask; tamirhane = the garage (repair shop); tamir etmek = to reopair; yarın = tomorrow


Lesson 11


The conditional describes a hypothetical action. Something which can be translated in simple form with “would be, would do”.

In Turkish you form the conditional with the suffix -sa/-sa.

The suffix follows the Little Vowel Harmony:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö or ü the suffix is -se.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u the suffix is -sa.

The examples:
bilsem = if I would know
bilsen = if you would know
bilse = if he/she/it would know
bilsek = if we would know
bilseniz = if you (plural) would know
bilseler = if they would know

yapsam = if I would do
yapsan = if you would do
yapsa = if he/she/it would do
yapsak = if we would do know
yapsanız = if you (plural) would do
yapsalar = if they would do

In conditonal of course you can change also the tenses:
yapsaydım = if I would have done
yapsaydın = if you would have done
yapsaydı = if he/she/it would have done
yapsaydık = if we would have done
yapsaydınız = if you (plural) would have done
yapsaydılar = if they would have done


For negating the conditional we use the famous suffix -me/-ma:

bilmesem = if I wouldn’t know
bilmesen = if you wouldn’t know
bilmese = if he/she/it wouldn’t know
bilmesek = if we wouldn’t know
bilmeseniz = if you (plural) wouldn’t know
bilmeseler = if they wouldn’t know

yapmasam = if I wouldn’t do
yapmasan = if you wouldn’t do
yapmasa = if he/she/it wouldn’t do
yapmasak = if we wouldn’t do
yapmasanız = if you (plural) wouldn’t do
yapmasalar = if they wouldn’t do


You can also combine the conditional with var or yok:

varsa = if there is
yoksa = if there isn’t

Domates varsa, bana lütfen iki kilo verir misin? = If there are tomatos please give me 2 kilos?

11.4 “IF” = “EĞER”

Another option to form conditional phrases is offered by eğer. Anyway the suffixes –se/-sa still have to be used but if you begin your sentence with eğer the listener knows automatically that a conditional sentence is now following.
Eğer domates varsa, bana lütfen iki kilo verir misin?

akşam = the evening; aramak = to call (by phone); cevap = the answer; cevap vermek = to answer; çağırmak = to call; çarşı = the (city) centre, the market; eğer = if; pazar = the market, Sunday; sabah = the morning; zaman = the time

Lesson 12



hafta = week
bugün = today
dün = yesterday
önceki günü = before yesterday
yarın = tomorrow
öbür günü = after tomorrow

Pazartesi = Monday
Salı = Tuesday
Çarşamba = Wednesday
Perşembe = Thursday
Cuma = Friday
Cumartesi = Saturday
Pazar = Sunday

Week days are proper nouns and there written with capital letters at the beginning.

Bugün Pazartesi. = Today is Monday.
Yarın Salı (günü). = Tomorrow is Tuesday.

gün (= day) is used frequently in combination with week days but it’s optional – literally it would mean: “Tomorrow is Tuesday day.”, which of course is double said but only in a literal translation.
Perşembe (günü) buluşalım mi? =Shall we meet on Thursday?
Dün Pazardı. = Yesterday was Sunday.
Here we use a past tense as yesterday is past and you just add the according “to be”-form to the week day.

Day times
sabah = morning
öğle = noon
öğleden sonra = afternoon
akşam = evening
gece = night


ay = month (also the moon)
yıl = year

Ocak = January
Şubat = February
Mart = March
Nisan = April
Mayıs = May
Haziran = June
Temmuz = July
Ağustos = August
Eylül = September
Ekim = October
Kasım = November
Aralık = December

Month are also proper nouns.

The date is just a number with months plus year. So the answer to question
Bugün ayın kaçı? = Which date is today?
could be for example
3 Nisan 1998 (üç Nisan bin dokuz yüz doksan sekiz) = 3rd April 1998
22 Eylül 1632 (yirmi iki Eylül bin altı yüz otuz iki) = 22nd September 1632

The four seasons:
mevsim = season
bahar oder ilkbahar = spring
yaz = summer
sonbahar = autumn
kış = winter

There is an exception with the seasons:
If you like to say “in spring” or “in autumn” you just use the locative as known:
(ilk)baharda oder sonbaharda
Exception : “in summer” or “in winter”, then it’s:
yazın or kışın


saat = hour (also the clock, watch)
dakika = minute
saniye = second

Furthermore: çeyrek = quarter and buçuk = half.

et’s say it’s a quarter past 3 and somebody asks you:
Saat kaç? = What time is it?
You have following options to answer:
1) Simple way: saat beş on beş = 5.15 (five fifteen).
2) or a bit more formal: saat beşi çeyrek geçiyor = a quarter past five – literal translation: 5 is passed by a quarter.

For telling the time you need the accusative, if you’re in the first half of an hour.

On the other side, when telling the time for the second half of an hour you use the dative:
1) saat beş kırk beş = 5.45.
2) saat altıya çeyrek var = a quarter to 6 – literal translation: There is a quarter until 6.

The “half past” times are neutral: saat on iki buçuk (simple way: saat on iki otuz) = half past twelve (12.30)

For fixing a time you use the locative and replace var by kala and geçiyor by geçe.
Saat kaçta? = At what time?:
Saat iki (on dört) buçukta. or Saat iki (on dört) otuzda. = At half past 2. – At 14.30.
Saat dört (on altı) buçuğa beş kala. or Saat dört (on altı) yirmi beşte. = At five to half past 4. – At 16.25.
Saat dokuza çeyrek kala. or Saat sekiz kırk beşte. = At quarter to 9. – At 8.45.
Saat onu çeyrek geçe. oder Saat on on beşte. = At quarter past 10. – At 10.15.

It’s up to you if you use the simple or the formal way to express time. Both versions are right and common.


12.4.1 “Before/ago” and “after/in”
önce = before/ago
sonra = after/in

Üç hafta önce. = 3 weeks ago.
İki ay sonra. = After/in 2 months.
Altı gün önce. = 6 days ago.
Beş yıl sonra. = After/in 1 year.
Saat ikiden sonra. = After 10 o’clock.

12.4.2 “From… until/to…”
A combination of ablative/dative and kadar defines also time period.
Pazartesi’den Cuma’ya kadar. = From Monday to Friday.
Saat dokuzdan üçe kadar. = From 9 to 3 o’clock.
Temmuz’den Eylül’a kadar. = From July to September.
On buçuktan on ikiye çeyrek kalaya kadar. = From half past 10 until quarter to 12.

12.4.3 More Prepositions
…(always in combination with ablative):
beri = since (for)
Saat yediden beri kullanıyorum. = I’m driving since 7 o’clock.
Yedi saatten beri kullanıyorum. = I’m driving for 7 hours.

evvel = before
Saat yediden evvel vardık. = We arrived before 7 o’clock.
Ondan evvel vardık. = We arrived before him/her.
(Not to mistake with önce:
Yedi saat önce vardık. = We arrived 7 hours ago.)

itibaren = (as) from
Saat sekizden itibaren arayacağım. = As from 8 o’clock I’ll call you.
Ocaktan itibaren, diyet yapacağım. = As from January I’m going to make a diet.

beri = since, for; çünkü = because; evvel = before; itibaren = as from; kadar = to, until; önce = before/ago; sigara içmek = to smoke (to “drink” the cigarette); ve = and; veya = or




















Lesson 13


The passive is formed with the suffixes -il- and -in-. Both suffixes follow the GREAT VOWEL HAMONY, therefore they can be modified to:
-ıl-, -il- , -ul- and -ül-

… accordingly with -in-:
-ın-, -in-, -un- and -ün-

-il- is used for all verb stems ending with consonantes, EXCEPT the verb stem is ending with an l (L), then you use -in-.

Examples in infinitive:
yapmak = to make – yapılmak = to be made
kapatmak = to close – kapatılmak = to be closed
vermek = to give – verilmek = to be passed
görmek = to see- görülmek = to be seen

Verb stems ending with l:
bulmak = to find – bulunmak = to be found
almak = to take- alınmak = to be taken

13.1.2 Vowel Ending
If the verb stem ends on a vocal the suffix is shortened to -n-:
yemek = to eat – yenmek = to be eaten
beklemek = to wait – beklenmek = to be expected

13.1.3 Passive in Different Tenses
You can put the passive into different tenses.

Pencere açılıyor. = The window is being opened.
Pencere açılır. = The window is opened.
Pencere açıldı. = The window has been opened.
Pencere açılmış. = The window was openend.
Pencere açılacak. = The window is going to be opened.
Pencere açılsa. = If the window is opened.

Actually you just construct a new verb if you form the passive and this new verb can be handled as you learned in former lessons.



If you want to express that a certain action is taken by a person you have to combine the passive form with tarafından (= from side of):
Bu mektup Mehmet tarafından gönderildi. = The letter has been sent by Mehmet.
Kitap Yaşar Kemal tarafından yazılmış. = The book has been written by Yaşar Kemal.


To negate just add -me/-ma (Little Vowel Harmony) to the passive form:

yapılmamak = to be not made
verilmemek = to be not passed
görülmemek = to be not seen
bulunmamak = to be not found
yenmemek = to be not eaten

Sample sentences:
Pencere açılmıyor. = The window is not being opened.
Pencere açılmaz. = The window cannot be opened.
Pencere açılmadı. = The window hasn’t been opened.
Pencere açılmamış. = The window wasn’t opened.
Pencere açılmacak. = The window is not going to be opened.
Pencere açılmasa. = If the window is not opened.


At the same time the passive suffix -in is also the suffix for reflexive forms (himself/herself/itself).

yıkamak = to wash – yıkanmak = to wash himself
bulmak = to find – bulunmak = to find himself, but same as in passive: to be found
görmek = to seen – görünmek = to see himself (also: to be located)


dayamak = to base; demek = to say; göndermek = to send; görmek = to see; kir = the dirt, dity; pis = dirty; pislik = the dirt, lousiness, mess; satmak = to sell; silmek = to erase; temizlemek = to clean; yıkamak = to wash





Lesson 14


“with” and “without” are also formed by suffixes which are added to the substantives.

14.1.1 With – The Suffix “-li”
-li follows the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so it can be modified to
-lı, -li, -lu and -lü

Sütlü bir kahve lütfen. = A coffee with milk please.
Proper nouns are separated by an apostroph from the suffix:
Mehmet’le futbol maçına gittim. = I have gone with Mehmet to the football match.
If the word ends on a vowel you insert y:
Kediyle oynuyorum. = I’m playing with the cat.

The suffix -li is related to the word ile which means “with” but also “and”.
Leyla ile Mecnun. = Leyla and Mecnun. – or: Leyla with Mecnun.
Mecnun Leyla ile gezmiş. = Mecnun went with Leyla for a walk.
OR: Mecnun Leyla’yla gezmiş.

14.1.2 Without – The Suffix “-siz”
-siz is also determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
-sız, -siz, -suz and -süz

Sütsüz bir kahve lütfen. = A coffee without milk please.
Mehmet’siz futbol maçına gittim. = I have gone without Mehmet to the football match.

14.2 “LIKE/AS” AND “FOR”

In Turkish “like/as” and “for” are single unchangeable words.

14.2.1 Like/as – “gibi”
Ayı gibi bir adam(dır). = He’s a man like a bear. (literal translation: Bear like a man is.)
Cildi ipek gibi hafif(dir). = His/her skin is as soft as silk. (literal translation: Her/his skin silk like soft is.)

14.2.2 For – “için”
Examples :
Futbol maçı için iki bilet lazım. = I need two tickets for the football match.
Bu Lale için bir hediye(dir). = This is a present for Lale.


Also for the climax and superlative forms there are single unchangable words.

14.3.1 Degrees of Adjectives and Comparative
daha = more, still

İstanbul daha yakın(dır). = Istanbul is nearer. (literal translation: Istanbul more near is.)
Bu masa daha küçük(tür). = This table is smaller. (literal translation: This table more small is.)

For comparing daha is combined with the ablative which occures a comparative:
Lale Deniz’den daha büyük(tür). = Lale is taller than Deniz. (literal translation: From Deniz Lale is more tall.)

daha can also be translated with “still”:
İstanbul’a daha 20 kilometre var. = There are still 20 kms until Istanbul.

14.3.2 Superlative with “en”
en = the most

Mehmet en küçük(tür). or: Mehmet en küçüğü. = Mehmet is the smallest.
İstanbul Türkiye’de en büyük şehir(dir). = Istanbul is the biggest town in Turkey.

alışveriş = the shopping; ayı = the bear; bilet = the ticket; cilt = the skin; daha = more, still; ders çalışmak = to learn; en = most; futbol = football, soccer; futbol maçı = the football match; gibi = like, as; giriş = the entrance; görmek = to see; hediye = the present; ışımak = to shine; için = for; ile = with, and; ipek = the silk; kilometre = kilometre; kolay = easy; maç = the match; sel = the flood; seyretmek = to watch; şehir = city, town; şeker = the sugar; ücret = the fee, charge, toll; yaşlı = old, aged









Lesson 15


Origins are also expressed by suffixes, determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
-li, -lı, -lu, -lü

This suffixe are to be added to countries or cities/places.

İstanbul – İstanbullu = citizen of Istanbul
Londra – Londralı = citizen of London
Pekin (= Beijing) – Pekinli = citizen of Beijing
Auvusturya (= Austria) – Avusturyalı = the Austrian

Following some more countries with nationalities:
Avustralya = Australia – Avustralyalı = Australian
(Attention, not to mistake with Avusturya = Austria)
Belçika = Belgium – Belçikalı = Belgian
Çin = China – Çinli = Chinese
Hollanda = Holland – Hollandalı = Dutch
İrlanda = Ireland – İrlandalı = Irish
İsveç = Sweden – İsveçli = Swede
İsviçre = Switzerland – İsviçreli = Swiss
Portekiz = Portugal – Portekizli = Portuguese

Moreover there are also fixed terms for nationalities:
Alman = German – the country Almanya = Germany
Arap = Arab – the country Arabistan = Arabia
Fransız = French – the country Fransa = France
İngiliz = English – the country İngiltere = England
İskoç = Scottish – the country İskoçya = Scottland
İspanyol = Spanish – the country İspanya = Spain
İtalyan = Italian – the country İtalya = Italy
Japon = Japanese – the country Japonya = Japan
Rus = Russian – the country Rusya = Russia
Türk = Turk – the country Türkiye = Turkey


In Turkish terms for languages always end with
-ce or -ca
after hard consonates with
-çe or -ça
… so it’s determined by the Little Vowel Harmony.

The combination of the suffixes for countries and languages creates the language.

Avustralyaca = = Australian language (though this languages might not exist)
Çince = Chinese language
İrlandaca = Irish language
İskoçyaca = Scottisch language
İsveççe = Swedish language
İsviçrece = Swiss language
Portekizce = Portuguese language

Exceptions as not occuring from the countries’ names:
Almanca = German language
Arapça = Arab language
Fransızca = French language
İngilizce = English language
İspanyolca = Spanish language
İtalyanca = Italian language
Japonca = Japanese language
Rusça = Russian language
Türkçe = Turkish language

And last but not least in Turkish there is also the so called Tarzanca. You speak this language when nobody knows what you’re talking about and doesn’t understand you at all. In English it would be translated with “it’s all Greek to me”, but for the Turks it’s the jungle language “Tarzanian”…

IMPORTANT: The suffix for language only refers to a language, it’s not an adjective. For example if you had italian food, this suffix is not appropiate. You would then say: Dün Italyan yemeği yedik. = “Yesterday we ate italian food.”


Also professions have their own suffixes:
-ci, -cı, -cu or -cü
after hard consonantes
-çi, -çı, -çu or -çü
… and therefore following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY.

Let’s take simple terms like
posta = the post, mail
= the work
yazı = the font
fırın = the oven, the bakery

By adding the above mentioned suffixes you create professions:
postacı = the postman
işçi = the worker
yazıcı = the writer
fırıncı = the baker

But there are also fixed terms like:
kasap = the butcher


With another suffix you can create general terms:
-lik, -lık, -luk, -lük (GREAT VOWEL HARMONY)

Taking the formerly created professions you receive with this suffixes general terms as follows:
postacılık = the postal system
işçilik = the workership
yazıcılık = the business of writing
fırıncılık = the business of baking
birlik = the unity (from bir = one)

These are more abstract terms but you there can also result very concrete terms, like for example:
sebzelik = the vegetable cooler (in the fridgerator)
kitaplık = the bookshelf

fırın = the oven, the bakery; = the work; kasap = the butcher; kütüphane = the library; memleket = the country, the homeland; posta = the post, mail; sebze = the vegetable; ülke = the country, the state; yazı = the font, the script













Lesson 16


In order to express the ability to do something you just need another suffix. But in Turkish you have to differ the ability to do something: either you are generally able to do something (skill, knowledge) or just at the moment (situational).

16.1.1 The General Ability

-(y)ebiliyor oder -(y)abiliyor (Little Vowel Harmony).
The y in bracks is only inserted when the word ends on vowel. Then you add a personal pronoun suffix (by the way, the suffix is not changed into “-(y)abılıyor”, though there is a vowel “a” before):

yapabiliyorum = I can do
yapabiliyorsun = you can do
yapabiliyor = he/she/it can do
yapabiliyoruz = we can do
yapabiliyorsunuz = you (plural or polite form) can do
yapabiliyorlar = they can do

Maybe you have noticed that the suffix has a similarity to the verb bilmek in 3rd person singular (biliyor = he/she/it knows). A free translation of the suffix could be “knowing to do something” and in general bilmek is translated with “to know, to be able”.

Another example:
gidebiliyorum = I can walk
gidebiliyorsun = you can walk
gidebiliyor = he/she/it can walk
gidebiliyoruz = we can walk
gidebiliyorsunuz = you (plural or polite form) can walk
gidebiliyorlar = they can walk

The verb stem of gitmek is git-, but as you know you have to soften t to d.

As mentioned before this kind of ability expresses a skill or knowldege:
Türkçe konuşabiliyorum. = Ich can speak Turkish./I know Turkish.

16.1.2 Negation of General Ability

Now the suffix has to be modified: remove -bil- and insert an m so you’ve got: -emiyor or -amiyor (Little Vowel Harmony)

yapamıyorum = I can’t do
yapamıyorsun = you can’t do
yapamıyor = he/she/it can’t do
yapamıyoruz = we can’t do
yapamıyorsunuz = you (plural or polite form) can’t do
yapamıyorlar = they can’t do

16.1.3 The Situational Ability

If you are able to do something because you want to do it and no external circumstance prevents it, then you use the suffix:
-(y)ebilir or -(y)ebilir (Little Vowel Harmony)

yapabilirim = I can do (in this moment)
yapabilirsin = you can do
yapabilir = he/she/it can do
yapabiliriz = we can do
yapabilirsiniz = you (plural or polite form) can do
yapabilirler = they can do

16.1.4 Negation of Situational Ability

To negate the situational ability you need the suffix:
(y)eme(z) or -(y)ama(z) (Little Vowel Harmony).

As usual y occurs at vowel ending and in each 1st person the z at the end is removed (remember the negation of ir-present):

yapamam = I can’t do (in this moment)
yapamazsın = you can’t do
yapamaz = he/she/it can’t do
yapamayız = we can’t do
yapamazsınız = you (plural or polite form) can’t do
yapamazlar = they can’t do

It’s important to note be aware of the nie Nuance: yapamam = “I can’t do” expresses that I cannot do something because I don’t want to or a particular circumstance is preventing me from doing it.

gidemem = I can’t walk
gidemezsin = you can’t walk
gidemez = he/she/it can walk
gidemeyiz = we can’t walk
gidemezsiniz = you (plural or polite form) can’t walk
gidemezler = they can’t walk

Meaning: I can’t or don’t walk to somewhere in this moment.


In Turkish you can use the situational ability to express the allowance of doing something, as there is no explicit verb for this (like for example “may” in English).

Sana bir şey sorabilir miyim? = May I (Am I allowed to) ask you something?
Girebilirsin. = You may (are allowed) come in.
Bakabiliriz. = We may (are allowed) to watch.

bilmek = to know, to be able; bilgi = the knowledge; bilgisayar = the computer (literally: the counter of knowledge); çeviri = the translation; çevirmek = to translate; hesap (or: fatura) = the bill, the invoice, the check; hesaplamak = to calculate; saymak = to count; tercüme = the translation; tercüme etmek = to translate




















Lesson 17

Participles are used to put a verb in relation to a substantive. The result is for instance a relative clause, sentences which can be translated with “something that” or “somebody who”.

17.1.1 Participles with “-dik”

This suffix is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY and can therefore be:
-dık, -dik, -duk, -dük

After hard consonantes: -tık, -tik, -tuk, -tük

Adding a personal pronouns suffix softens the k in -dik to ğ, except in 3rd person plural.

Kaçırdığım tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train I missed will stop in Ankara.
Kaçırdığın tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train you missed… .
Kaçırdığı tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train he/she/it missed… .
Kaçırdığımız tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train we missed… .
Kaçırdığınız tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train you (plural or polite form) we missed… .
Onların kaçırdıkları tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train they missed… .

The suffix doesn’t express any tense mode which means that the context clarifies in which tense (present or past) the speaker is talking.
gördüğün kadın can therefore be “the woman you see” or “the woman you saw”. It’s up to the context to determine the tense.

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
Kaçırmadığım tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train I didn’t miss… .
görmediğin kadın = the woman you don’t/didn’t see

17.1.2 Participle with “-(y)en/-(y)an”

In Turkish there is no direct translation for the relative clause term “that/who”. This is solved with the suffix
-(y)en/-(y)an (Little Vowel Harmony).

kalan yemek = the food that remains
gelen adam = the man who comes

At vowel ending insert a y:
bekleyen kız = the girl who waits

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
kalmayan yemek = the food that doesn’t remain
gelmeyen adam = the man who doesn’t come

17.1.3 Participle with “-(y)ecek/-(y)acak”

Another participle is
-(y)ecek/-(y)acak (Little Vowel Harmony)
Actually it’s identical with the future suffix -ecek/-acak, but in this case it’s a participle putting a verb in relation to a substantive, so there is no chance to mistake it.

kalacak yemek = the food that will remain
gelecek adam = the man who will come

This vocabulary you know already:
gelecek zaman means “the future”, but literally it’s: “the time that will come”

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
kalmayacak yemek = the food that won’t remain
gelmeyecek adam = the man who won’t come


The suffix -(y)ip or -(y)ıp, -(y)up, -(y)üp (GREAT VOWEL HARMONY) helps forming parallel sentences. It means that you can combine at least two actions following directly after another in the same tense form.

Eve gidiyorum, çay içiyorum. = I’m going home and drink a tea.

Take the first verb, equip it with a -(y)ip-suffix and you got:
Eve gidip çay içiyorum.

The sentence is now more fluently and you save some letters. The -(y)ip-suffix is always the same independent of the person. It’s the last verb without -(y)ip-suffix determining the person and tense.
Normally you don’t link more then three actions this way.
Dükkana gidip ekmek alıp bana getirirsin. = You go to the shop, buy bread and bring it to me.

At vowel ending insert a y:
Arabaya atlayıp çarşıya gidiyoruz. = We jump into the car and drive to the centre.

atlamak = to jump; dükkan = the shop; ekmek = the bread; kaçırmak = to miss; kalmak = to stay; meyva (or meyve) = the fruit; meyva suyu= the fruit juice; portakal = the orange; portakal suyu = the orange juice; tren = the train





Lessons’ Overview

Lesson 01







Lesson 02




Lesson 03






3.6.1 Questions with “mi”
3.6.2 Other interrogative words

Lesson 04



4.2.1 Who or What?
4.2.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.2.3 Vowel Ending
4.2.4 Proper Nouns
4.2.5 Accusative Pronouns

4.3.1 Whom?… or Whereto?
4.3.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.3.3 Vowel Ending
4.3.4 Proper Nouns
4.3.5 Dative Pronouns

4.4.1 Whose?
4.4.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.4.3 Vowel Ending
4.4.4 Proper Nouns
4.4.5 Exceptions in Genitive

4.5.1 From where, from who or from what?
4.5.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.5.3 Proper Nouns

4.6.1 Where?
4.6.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.6.3 Proper Nouns
4.6.4 Remark to the Locative


Lesson 05


5.1 “TO BE”



Lesson 06






Lesson 07






Lesson 08



Lesson 09



Lesson 10

10.1.1 “-meli/-malı”
10.1.2 Negation of “-meli/-malı”
10.1.3 “Lazım”
10.1.4 Negation of “lazım”
10.1.5 “Gerekmek”
10.1.6 Negation of “gerekmek”


Lesson 11




11.4 “IF” = “EĞER”

Lesson 12





12.4.1 “Before/ago” and “after/in”
12.4.2 “From… to…”
12.4.3 More Prepositions

Lesson 13

13.1.2 Vowel Ending
13.1.3 Passive in Different Tenses




Lesson 14

14.1.1 With – The Suffix “-li”
14.1.2 Without – The Suffix “-siz”

14.2 “LIKE/AS” AND “FOR”
14.2.1 Like/as – “gibi”
14.2.2 For – “için”

14.3.1 Degrees of Adjectives and Comparative
14.3.2 Superlative with “en”

Lesson 15






Lesson 16

16.1.1 The General Ability
16.1.2 Negation of General Ability
16.1.3 Situational Ability
16.1.4 Negation of Situational Ability


Lesson 17

17.1.1 Participles with “-dik”
17.1.2 Participles with “-(y)en/-(y)an”
17.1.3 Participles with “-(y)ecek/-(y)acak”


Additional Lessons:

Survival Kit

Hello, how are you?

Darf ich mich vorstellen?

Gehen wir einkaufen?

Lass uns ausgehen!

Mir geht’s nicht so gut!

Führerschein, Ausweis bitte!

Schilder, Warnungen, Abkürzungen







Driver’s Licence and ID please!

Pasaportunuz lütfen. = Your passport please.
Evraklarını lütfen.
= Your documents please.
Ehliyetiniz ve ruhsatınız lütfen. = Your driver’s licence and registration please.

Gümrüğe tabi eşyanız var mı? = Do you have something to declare?
Bunun içinde ne var? = What is in there?
… açın lütfen? = Please open..
bagajı = the trunk
bavulu = the suitcase

Polis istasyonu nerede? = Where is a police station?

… ihbar etmek istiyorum. = I want to denounce …
(bir) hırsızlık = a thievery
(bir) saldırı = a raid
(bir) kaza = an accident

… çaldılar. = … has been stolen.
bavulu = the suitcase
cüzdani = the wallet
çantası = the bag
fotoğraf makinasını = the photo camera
parayı = the money

Burada ne kadar kalmam lazım? = How long do I have to stay here?
Bir avukatla/konsolosla görüşmek istiyorum. = I want to talk to a lawyer/with the consulate.


Let’s Go Shopping!

Para makinası nerede? = Where is a cash machine/ATM?
Döviz bürosu nerede? = Where is a money exchange office?

Nereden … alabilirim? = Where can I buy …?

Sende (sizde) … var mı? = Do you (plural/polite form) have … ?

Bu kaça? / Bu ne kadar? = How much is this?
Bu (çok) pahali. = This is (very) expensive.
Bu (çok) ucuz. = This is (very) cheap.

Bana lazım … = I need …
Bunu istiyorum. = I want this.

Daha ucuz olmaz mı? = Can you reduce it more?

Bunu beğendim. = I like it.
Bunu alıyorum. = I take it.
Prova edebilir miyim? = Can I test it?

Teşekkürler, hepsi bu kadar. = Thanks, that’s all.

Kredi kartı alıyor musun(uz)? = Do you accept (plural/polite form) credit cards?

Different kind of shops:
berber = hairdresser/barber
çiçekçi dükkani = florist
eczane = pharmacy
elektrikçi dükkanı = electric shop
fırın = bakery
gözlükçü = optician
kasap dükkanı = butcher
kunduracı = shoe maker
fotografçi dükkanı = photo shop
mobilyacı = furniture shop
parfümeri = perfumery
plakçi dükkanı = music shop (CDs, cassettes, etc.)
spor eşyaları = sports shop
= candy shop
terzihane = tailoring


Signs, Warnings and Abbreviations

AÇIK = Open
= Ladies
BAYLAR = Gentlemen
CIKIŞ = Exit
DİKKAT = Attention
= Men
GİRİŞ = Entrance
İMDAT KAPISI = Emergency Exit
= Women
KAPALI = Closed
KIRALIK = For Rent
SATILIK = For Sale
SİGARA İÇMEK YASAKTIR = Smoking Prohibited (since May 2008 smoking in public buidlings and during driving a car is not allowed, the penalties are high…)
TEHLİKE FRENİ = Emergency Brake
ÖLÜM TEHLİKESİ = Danger of Life (e.g. electriciy panels, often in combination with a skull and crossbones, who still doesn’t understand got a real problem 😉 )
YASAK BÖLGE = Restricted Area (often military areas; by the way it’s of course not allowed to take pictures of police stations and military facilities, in this matter turkish officials don’t have any sense of humour)

bkz. = bakınız (see)
cad. = cadde (street)
= Milattan önce (before Christ BC)
MS = Milattan sonra (anno Domini AD)
sok. = sokak (alley, small street)
PK = posta kutusu (post box)
PTT = Posta, Telgraf, Telefon (turkish post office)
TBMM = Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (the turkish parliament)
TC = Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Republic of Turkey)
TCDD = Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları (turkish railway company)
THY = Türk Hava Yolları (Turkish Airlines)
TRT = Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu (turkish public television)
vb. = ve başkaları (etc.)
vs. = ve saire (etc.)
YTL = Yeni Türk Lirası (the turkish currency, new Turkish Lira)


Important vocabulary and phrases for a basic communication:

Evet. = Yes.

Hayır. = No.

Tamam. = Okay.

Affedersin(iz). = Excuse me (plural/polite form) please.

Pardon. = Sorry.

(Çok) Teşekkür ederim. = Thank you (very much).

Sağ ol(un). = Thank you (plural/polite form).

Bir şey değil. = You’re welcome.

Lütfen. = Please. (when asking for something)
Buyurun. = Here you are. (when passing something)

… istiyorum. = I want…

Anlamıyorum. = I don’t understand.

Tuvalet nerede? = Where is the rest room?

Üzgünüm, Türkçe konuşmuyorum. =I’m sorry, I don’t speak Turkish.

Lütfen beni rahat bırak(ın). = Please leave me alone (plural/polite form).

İmdat! = Help!

turizm bürosu = tourist information
havaalanı or havalimanı = the airport
şehir merkezi = the city centre
dikkat = Attention!
su = water
ekmek = bread
plaj = beach
buz = ice (for cooling, not the ice cream, this would be dondurma)

And finally the mabe most important phrase:
İki bira lütfen. = Two beers please!


Let’s Go Out!

Burada … nerededir?
= Where is here … ?
(bir) bar = a bar
(bir) disko(tek) = a disco
(bir) gazino = kind of open air bar with live music
(bir) gece kulübü = a night club (absolutely not recommendable, except you like the risk and being ripped off…)
(bir) kahve = tea house, only for men
(bir) çay bahçesi = tea garden, mostly open air the house for the whole family
iyi bir restoran = a good restaurant
(bir) sinema = a cinema

Giriş ne kadar? = How much is the entrance fee?

For getting access to a disco usually you pay a fee. But often there is a sign saying:
Damsız girilmez = No entrance without a lady.
which means that a man without being accompanied by a woman will be rejected from entering. So it’s more difficult to impossible to enter with a group of men only. But for women everything is different…
A similar limitation exists for the çay bahçesi: Families are prefered, single persons or couples might be not too much welcome. The purpose of the location determines the kind of guests…

İki kişilik masayı lütfen.
= A table for two, please.
Bu masa boş mu?
= Is this table free?

Yemek listesini/içecek listesini var mı? = Do you have a menu card/drinks’ list?
Sizde … var mı? = Do you (plural/polite form) have…?
Ne tavsiye ediyorsun(uz)? = What do you (plural/polite form) recommend?

kahvaltı = breakfast
öğle yemeği = lunch
akşam yemeği = dinner

Açıktım. = I’m hungry.
Susadım. = Im thirsty.

sıcak = hot
soğuk = cold

Afiyet olsun. = Enjoy your meal.

Hesap lütfen. = Check please.

Bugünkü program ne?
= What is shown today?
Filim ne zaman başlıyor? = When does the movie start?
Öğrenci için indirim var mı? = Is there a discount for pupils/students?

koltuk = parquet
loca = loge/box
yer = seat
sıra = row
boş yer yok = sold out

Benimle dans eder misin?
= Do you like to dance with me?
Hadi, dans edelim.
= Come on, let’s dance.

Benimle çıkar mısın? = Do you like to go out with me?

… istiyorum. = I want…
alkolsüz içki = alcohol free drink
amer = bitters
bira = beer
cin = gin
elma suyu = apple juice
fiçi birası = draft/draught beer
maden suyu = mineral water
meyve suyu = fruit juice
portakal suyu = orange juice
rakı = turkish anise liquor (also called aslan sütü = lion’s milk)
şarap = wine
şampanya = champagne
su = water
viski = whiskey
votka = vodka

Şerefe! = Cheers!
Sarhoşum. = I’m drunk.


Hello, How Are You?

How to greet:
Günaydın. = Good morning.
Merhaba. /İyi günler. = Good day.
İyi akşamlar. = Good evening. (also when you leave)
İyi geceler. = Good night.

Hoş geldiniz. = Welcome. (literally: “you come with pleasure”)
Hoş bulduk. = literally: “it’s pleasure we found”, which is the answer to “hoş geldiniz”

Selamun aleyküm. = from Arabic: May peace with you!
(Ve) Aleyküm selam. = Reply: (And) May peace with you!
This kind of greeting often is used when for instance greeting a group of men. It’s not usual to greet women this way.

More colloquial ways of greeting are for example:
= Hello.
Merhaba çocuklar.
= Hey guys.

Allaha ısmarladık. = Goodbye. (says the one who leaves, literally: “to God we have been ordered”)
Güle güle.
= Goodbye. (replies the one who remains, literally: “with a smile”)
Görüşmek üzere. = Goodbye. (litarally: To see you again)

Colloquial forms:
Hadi, bana eyvallah.
= Well, bye from my part.
Hadi, ben kaçıyorum. = Okay, I’m out of here.
is a short form of haydi which means actually something like “come on”, “let’s go”…

= How are you (plural/polite form)?
İyi, teşekkür ederim. Ya sen (siz)? = Thank you, I’m fine. And you (plural/polite form)?
Instead of teşekkür ederim you can also say sağ ol(un).

Other expressions of “how are you”:
Ne var ne yok? = What’ up?
Ne haber? = What’s new?
Possible replies:
İyilik. = literally: The goodness. (this are for example the news)
Şöyle böyle. = Regular.

Görüşürüz. = See you. (when saying goodbye)
Bol şanslar. = Good luck.
İyi yolculuklar. = Have a nice trip.



May I Introduce Myself?

Adım… / İsmim… = My name is…

İsmin(iz) ne? / Adın(ız) ne? = What’s your (plural/polite form) name?

Bu… = This is…
… arkadaşım. = … my friend.
… kız arkadaşım. = … my girlfriend.
… nişanlım. = my fiance.
… eşim. = my husband/wife.

Turks usually greet with shaking hands. Persons who know each other very well also kiss on their cheeks right and left – between men, too!
Men and women kiss mostly when they know each other very well, for example relatives or good friends. Therefore you should be more cautious spending kisses in the man-woman-greeting if you don’t know the person very well. Women on the other side very often greet each other with kisses even when they are introduced each other first time, for instance when being introduced to the family, but not at formal occasions like business dinners, meetings or similar…

Memnun oldum. = Nice to meet you. / I’m pleased.

Görüşten tanışıyoruz, değil mi? = We know each other from seeing, don’t we?

Ner(e)de oturuyorsun(uz)? = Where do you (plural/polite form) live?

Bur(a)da mı oturuyorsun(uz). = Do you (plural/polite form) live here?

Kaç yaşındasın(ız)? = How old are you (plural/polite form)?
Ben 29 yaşındayım. = I’m 29 years old.
Ne zaman doğdun(uz)? = When have you (plural/polite form) been born?

Mesleğin(iz) ne? = What’s your (plural/polite form) profession.
Ne çalışıyorsun(uz)? = What do you (plural/polite form) work?
Nerde ış yapıyorsun(uz)? = Where do you (plural/polite form) work?

Mesleğim… = My job is…

A choice of professions:
aşçı = chef
boyacı = painter
çilingir = locksmith
doktor = doctor

duvarcı = mason
elektrikçi = electrician
emekli = retiree
ev kadını = housewife
işçi = worker
esnaf= craftsman
marangoz = carpenter
memur = clerk, public official
mühendis = engineer
öğretmen = teacher
oto tamircisi = motor mechanic
sanatçı = artist
tesisatçı = installer
tüccar = merchant

Ne öğrenimi yapıyorsun(uz). or Ne okuyorsun(uz)? = What are you (plural/polite form) studying?

… okuyorum. = I study…

A choice of common studies:
biyoloji = biology
elektroteknik = electrotechnology
fızık = physics
hukuk = law
İngiliz filolojisi = anglistics
işletmecilik = economy
kimya = chemistry
makinecilik = engineering
mimarlık = architecture
müzik = music
psikoloji = psychology
sanat = arts
tarih = history
tıp = medicine








Learning Tips

Usually the best way to learn a language is to practise in the country where it’s spoken. But usually you don’t go and live in Turkey just because you’re interested in learning Turkish… or do you?

Following we would like to pass you some useful information how you can practise and improve what you’ve learning on our website. Of course these hints are useful for every new language to learn:

1) Read turkish newspapers! Online it’s very easy, for instance:

SABAH… One of the biggest turkish daily newspapers. There is also a European edition.

CNN TÜRK… The turkish version of the US news channel.

HÜRRIYET… What to say? Typical yellow press, lurid. But anyway also Hürriyet “speaks” Turkish – so why not…

Reading newspapers is the best way to get used to the commonly used language and terms. Besides you inform yourself about current events.

2) Almost everything is possible online. Also having turkish pen/email-pals. So find some and write in Turkish with them.

3) Maybe you have already turkish friends, colleagues or neighbours. So just talk Turkish to them and be curious for their reaction. Maybe they correct you here and there, but that’s great: this way you have a direct feedback on what you learn.
Also your kebab or turkish vegetables provider will be happy having a chat in his language. But take care that the one you speak to is a Turk in deed. Otherwise you just receive odd looks.

4) If you’re one of the lucky people who often travel and your journey carries you to Turkey then don’t be shy. Talk Turkish to everyone. You won’t be laughed at! It’s the best way to practise (next to reading) and the people will show their most positive reaction. Maybe you also find interesting new friends, too.







I Don’t Feel Well!

Lütfen bir doktor getir(in). = Please call (plural/polite form) a doctor.

En yakın eczane nerede? = Where is the nearest pharmacy?
Nerede doktor var? = Where is a doctor?
Nerede hastane var?
= Where is a hospital?

cildiyeci = dermatologist
çoçuk doktoru = pediatrist
göz doktoru
= eye specialist
kadın doktoru = gynaecologist
= surgeon
= urologist
bekleme odası
= waiting room

Hastayım. = I’m ill.
Burası acıyor. = Here it hurts.
Üşüttum. = I got a cold.
= I feel queasy.
Midem bozuldu. = I’ve got an upset stomach.
İstifrağ ettim. = I vomitted.
Ateşim var.
= I’ve got fever.
Şeker hastasıyım. = I’m diabetic.

= allergy
astım = asthma
ateş = fever
bahar nezlesi = hay fever
boğaz ağrısı = sore throat
bronşit = bronchitis
= flu
güneş çarpmısı
= sunstroke
güneş yanığı
= sunburn
= diarrhea
iltihap = immflamation
kramp = cramp
mide bulantısı = queasiness
migren = migraine
öğürtü = nausea
öksürük = cough
soğuk algınlığı = cold
(alçak/yüksek) tansiyon = low/high blood pressure
yaralanma = injury
zatürre = pneumonia

(Burasi) aciyor mu? = Does it hurt (here)?
Lütfen ağzinizi açin.
= Please open your mouth.
Ne yediniz? = What did you eat?
Ciddi bir şey değil. = It’s nothing serious.

aspirin = headache pill
enjeksiyon = injection
göz damlası = eye drops
hap = pill
haşarat tozu = antrycide
merhem = salve
mide hapı = antacide
uyku hapı = sleeping pill

yemekten önce = before meal
yemekten sonra
= after meal
günde üç kere = three times daily
aç karına = on an empty stomach



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