Life Balance

Beranda » 2017 » Januari

Monthly Archives: Januari 2017

Miss Universe 2017 from French

Congratulation to the new Miss Universe 2017 Irish Mittinaere represanting French. 

Ok let’s say I’m a French born in Indonesia 😂😂😂😂 (I’m not kidding but joking) and very happy to see my country as a winner this year

Iklan

LEARN TURKISH

LEARN TURKISH

Lesson 01

1.1 ALPHABET

Turkish uses the latin alphabet, just like English. Additionally there are some more letters which stand for a special sound. The letters W, X and Q don’t exist in Turkish alphabet, as they are formed differently: for example Van (V like W), Taksi (instead of Taxi) and K is the same sound as Q.

Therefore Turkish alphabet looks as follows (you can play each letter to hear the pronounciation):
A – a
B – b
C – c (like J in JUNGLE)
Ç – ç (like CH in CHANCE)
D – d
E – e
F – f
G – g (like G in GARDEN, never like G in GENERAL)
Ğ – ğ (yumuşak g, it’s a special sound which is acutally not spoken, it just lengthens the vowel; ğ just occures after vowels and never at the beginning of a word, for example yağmur = the rain sounds more like yaa-mur)
H – h (always spoken, like H in HOTEL)
I – ı (this again is a special sound, it looks like an i, but notice that it’s not dotted. It sounds like an E in TIGER)
İ – i (sounds like EE in BEE, this time dotted, which is important as it is also dotted in capital letter)
J – j (similar to C but softer, usually used for words originated from French language, like jandarma = gendarmerie)
K – k
L – l
M – m
N – n
O – o (like O in SOFT, never like O in BOW)
Ö – ö (like U in BURGER)
P – p
R – r (strongly rolled, even more than the usual English R)
S – s (sharp S like in BUS)
Ş – ş (like SH in SHOP)
T – t
U – u (OO like in BOOK, never spoken like YOU)
Ü – ü (EW like in FEW)
V – v (like W in WATER)
Y – y
Z – z (ZZ like in BUZZ)

1.2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND ARTICLES

In Turkish there is no gender like “he, she, it” and no definite article like “the”. Actually Turkish is a perfectly emancipated language which makes things much easier, doesn’t it? But there is an indefinite article: bir – which is also the digit 1. Here we are, you just learned another turkish word. Tebrikler (Congratulations!)… you see, just learned another one. Let’s keep this speed:

The personal prounouns are as follows:
ben = I
sen = you
o = he, she, it
biz = we
siz = you (plural) (siz is also the polite form)
onlar = they

1.3 VOWEL HARMONY

In Turkish there is the so called vowel harmony, which is differed in Little and GREAT VOWEL HARMONY. This is a MUST KNOW as it is the base for following grammar knowledge. Make yourself now familiar with the vowel harmony, though you still don’t know exactly how to use it. But it will be clear to you soon.

The turkish vowels are: a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü

Little Vowel Harmony:
a – ı – o – u is followed by a
e – i – ö – ü is followed by e

Great Vowel Harmony:
a – ı is followed by ı
e – i is followed by i
o – u is followed by u
ö – ü is followed by ü

Examples which make these rules clear will follow later.

1.4 SUFFIXES

Turkish is an agglutinated language which means that most words are formed with suffixes. Even complete sentences can therefore made with one word. Examples will also follow later as at this point we don’t want to irritate you too much.

 

1.5 CASES

Normally you know the 4 cases:
nominative (basic form)
accusative (who or what?)
dative (whom?)
genitive (whose?).

They also exist in Turkish but apart from that you have to learn about
ablative (from woher or from what?) and
lokative (where?).

Therefore Turkish has 6 cases but as you will notice later it’s not that complicated.

1.6 PHRASE CONSTRUCTION

Actually the phrase construction is summarized easily: Put the verb at the end of the sentence. Every other word prior to the verb can be placed almost in any order. Maybe here and there some wild combinations might sound strange but nevertheless you will be understood – as long as you keep the verb at the sentence’s end

If you learned and understood these five basic informations you already made a big step in learning Turkish. Actually Turkish is not a very complicated language. The only problem – if it might be one – is the pronounciation. But even that can be learned. And anyway just don’t be shy using what you learned. It can open hearts and an old turkish saying says:
Her dil insandır! = Every language is a human!

Vocabulary:
abece = the alphabet; İngilizce = English (the language!); bir = one, digit 1; dil = the language, the tongue; güneş = the sun; her = every; jandarma = the gendarmerie; insan = the human; otobüs = the bus; okul = the school; taksi = the taxi; Türkçe = Turkish (the language!); Van = a town in Turkey; yağmur = the rain

Lesson 02

2.1. VERBS

Turkish verbs always end on -mak or -mek. ALWAYS! There is no exception, isn’t that great? And now we arrived at the vowel harmony. What luck you hammered this vowel harmony into your head before. The endings -mak and -mek depend on the little vowel harmony. In detail:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u then the verb always ends with -mak. Logically in all other cases (e, i, ö or ü) the verb ends with -mek. Normally you learn the verbs simply in their basic form but it could be helpful to understand why one verb ends with -mak but the other with -mek.

Examples:
yapmak = to do
çıkmak = to go out
bozmak = to break
uyumak = to sleep

sevmek = to love
getirmek = to bring
ölmek = to die
düşünmek = to think

Maybe it is getting more clear why there is a vowel harmony anyway. As the name says it’s about the harmony, in fact at speaking. It sounds more harmonical to say yapmak instead of “yapmek”. bilmek is also easier to speak out then “bilmak”. Even if it’s not that clear for you, don’t mind. Later it will be much more clear for you.

Well, now that you know the difference between the basic verb (infinitve) and the verb stem you know also how to form the…
TATARATAAAAAA!…

2.2 IMPERATIVE

The verb stem is automatically the infinitive for 2nd person singular:
yap! = do! (2nd person singular)
çık! = get out! (2nd person singular)
boz! = break!(2nd person singular – bozmak can also be used for changing money, making bills to coins)
uyu! = sleep! (2nd person singular)
sev! = love! (2nd person singular)
getir! = bring! (2nd person singular)
öl! = die! (2nd person singular – not very kind but primary this is about the grammar)
düşün! = think! (2nd person singular)

For forming the infinitve in 2nd person plural you just add the suffix -in.

ATTENTION! This suffix is related to the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, which means if the verb stem’s last vowel is an
a or ı, suffix -in changes to -ın
e or i, suffix -in stays unchanged
o or u, suffix -in changes to -un
ö or ü, suffix -in changes to -ün

Examples:
yapın! = do!
çıkın! = go out!
bozun! = break!
uyuyun! = sleep!
sevin! = love!
getirin! = bring!
ölün! = die!
düşünün! = think!

Remember that in Turkish the 2nd person plural is also the polite form in which you speak to unknown or elder people or respected persons (like your boss). In daily language it’s not unpolite to speak to people in 2nd person singular (sen = you, 2nd person singular) when it’s obvious that they are of same age or younger. If you are not sure, just choose the polite form. The reaction of your conversation partner will let you know if you exaggerate… 😉

By the way: if a verb stem already ends with a vowel (like uyu-) we add a y prior to the suffix. You will notice that in such cases this happens often: If two vowels meet, the Turks prefers to separate these squabblers with a “y”.

2.3 NEGATION OF IMPERATIVE

Now you also learn how to negate an imperative as this can be realized easily. You only have to add -me oder -ma to the verb stem, depending on the Little Vowel Harmony. For our know verb examples this then looks as follows:

yapma! = don’t do! (2nd person singular)
çıkma! = don’t go out! (2nd person singular)
bozma! = don’t break! (2nd person singular)
uyuma! = don’t sleep! (2nd person singular)
sevme! = don’t love! (2nd person singular)
getirme! = don’t bring! (2nd person singular)
ölme! = don’t die! (2nd person singular)
düşünme! = don’t think! (2nd person singular)

Negating in 2nd person plural just requires putting -me/-ma in front of the suffix -in.
Notice, as two vowels cannot put next to each other, again an y has to be inserted between the two suffixes:

yapmayın! = don’t do! (2nd person plural)
çıkmayın! = don’t go out! (2nd person plural)
bozmayın! = don’t break! (2nd person plural)
uyumayın! = don’t sleep! (2nd person plural)
sevmeyin! = don’t love! (2nd person plural)
getirmeyin! = don’t bring! (2nd person plural)
ölmeyin! = don’t die! (2nd person plural)
düşünmeyin! = don’t think! (2nd person plural)

Maybe you noticed that the last suffixes now just are -in or -ın. It is still following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY but as the negation form just is either -ma or -me it can only follow -ın or -in. For example negating uyuyun cannot be “uyumayun” or düşünün cannot be “düşünmeyün” – sounds strange, even for a Turk.

Vocabulary:
açmak = to open; ağlamak = to cry; almak = to take; binmek = to get in, to board; bırakmak = to leave, to let go; bozmak = to break, to change money; çıkmak = to get out; düşünmek = to think; getirmek = to bring; gülmek = to laugh; ölmek = to die; sevmek = to love; uymak = to adapt yourself; vermek = to give; vurmak = to beat someone; yapmak = to make

 Lesson 03

Let’s go on with the simple things…

3.1 THE NUMBERS

sıfır = 0
bir = 1
iki = 2
üç = 3
dört = 4
beş = 5
altı = 6
yedi = 7
sekiz = 8
dokuz = 9
on = 10

The next numbers then just are simple combinations:

on bir = 11
on iki = 12
on üç = 13

on dokuz = 19

Now the tenners, also just combinations:

yirmi = 20
yirmi bir = 21
yirmi iki = 22
yirmi üç = 23
yirmi dört = 24

otuz = 30
kırk = 40
elli = 50
altmış = 60
yetmiş = 70
seksen = 80
doksan = 90

yüz = 100
yüz bir = 101
yüz on bir = 111
yüz yirmi bir = 121
iki yüz = 200
üç yüz = 300

bin = 1,000
bin bir = 1,001
bin iki yüz doksan bir = 1,291
on bin = 10,000
yüz bin = 100,000
bir milyon = 1,000,000
iki milyon = 2,000,000
bir milyar = 1 billion

3.2 THE ORDINALS

Learning the numbers also includes the ordinals. For this we need a new suffix:
-(i)nci (the vowel in bracks is just used if the number ends on a consonante).

The suffix depens on the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:

If last vowel is an a or ı the suffix must be -ıncı.
If last vowel is an e or i the suffix must be -inci.
If last vowel is an o or u the suffix must be -uncu.
If last vowel is an ö or ü the suffix must be -üncü.

birinci = 1st
ikinci = 2nd
üçüncü = 3rd
dördüncü = 4th (notice that t is modified to d)
beşinci = 5th
altıncı = 6th
yedinci = 7th
sekizinci = 8th
dokuzuncu = 9th
onuncu = 10th
on birinci = 11th

yirminci = 20th
otuzuncu = 30th
yüzüncü = 100th
milyonuncu = 1,000,000th
milyarıncı = billionth

Let’s have a closer look to dördüncü as you surely wondered why t changes to d. This is because of the “harmony”. There are the so called “Hard Consonantes” k, p and t. Always keeping them sometimes doesn’t sound “harmonic” for turkish ears. For example, it’s easier to speak out dördüncü instead of “dörtüncu”. Try it, which word is more fluently to speak? Exactly… But it’s also a question of feeling. With the time you get used to which sounds more harmonic as you develop a sense for the language.

Modification of “Hard Consonantes” is very usual so better get familiar with it.
But these three letters are not the only “Hard Consonantes”, there are also ç, f, h, s and ş. These consonantes are not getting modified but they harden the following suffix (depending on the suffix also after k, p and t). These will be more understandable in following lessons, but we mention it here, so you have a fair chance to get mentally prepared.

3.3 PLURAL

Forming the plural is almost as easy as in English. You just have to add a -lar or -ler, following the Little Vowel Harmony:
If last vowel is an a, ı, o or u then use -lar.
If last vowel is an e, i, ö or ü then use -ler.

Examples:
araba = the car – arabalar = (the) cars
oda = the room – odalar = (the) rooms
çocuk = the child – çocuklar = (thee) children
pencere = the window – pencereler = (the) windows
kedi = the cat – kediler = (the) cats
(Remember that in Turkish there are no definite articles!)

BUT: If you indicate a quantity you don’t have to use the plural form anymore. What does that mean?

For example you say in English:
one car, two cars, three cars, a undefined quantity of cars… thus if the quantity of cars is more than one, in English you are forced to use the plural. Not so in Turkish:

bir araba = a car
arabalar = (we don’t know how many) cars
iki araba = two cars
üç araba = three cars
etc.

The Turk prefers the simple way and thinks: If anyway the number indicates that I speak about many cars, why forming additionally a plural?

Another hint: You can combine the plural also with names, which can be the description of a complete “clan” or group of people. This can be practical.
Examples:
Mehmetler = the “Mehmets”, which can mean: brothers, sisters, father, mother of Mehmet or his (closest) friends, etc.
Mehmetler gelecek. = The Mehmets (Mehmet and his family) will come.
It’s even not unusual for English ears as it could be translated with: Mehmet and Co.

3.4 “THERE IS” AND “THERE IS NOT”

The expressions “there is” and “there is not” are used very often in Turkish.

var = there is
yok = there is not

That’s it, you don’t need more.

Examples:
You in are shop and would like to buy vegetables. So you ask the vender:
Domates var mı? = Are there tomatoes?
(in this context it means something more like: Do you have tomatoes?)

3.5 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

In lesson 1 you have learned the personal pronouns ben, sen, o, biz, siz, onlar (I, you, he/she/it, we, you (plural), they). By adding another suffix you form the possessive pronouns:

benim = my
senin = your
onun = his/her/its
bizim = our
sizin = your (plural or polite form)
onların = their

Combinating with nouns these possessive pronouns never change.

Examples:
benim araba = my car
senin akraba = your relative
etc.

But usually these possessive pronouns are not used but replaced by another suffix added to the noun. The pronouns itself are used to emphasize that something is YOURS, HIS, MY, etc… So without possessive pronouns it looks as follows:

arabam = my car
araban = your car
arabası = his/her/its car
arabamız = our car
arabanız = your (plural or polite form) car
arabası = their car

Explanation: The possessive suffixes are determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so the complete list looks as follows:
1st person singular: -(i)m / -(ı)m / -(u)m / -(ü)m
2nd person singular: -(i)n / -(ı)n / -(u)n / -(ü)n
3rd person singular: -(s)i / -(s)ı) / -(s)u / -(s)ü
1st person plural: -(i)miz / -(ı)mız / -(u)muz / -(ü)müz
2nd person plural: -(i)niz / -(ı)nız / -(u)nuz / -(ü)nüz
3rd prson plural: -(s)i / -(s)ı) / -(s)u / -(s)ü as in 3rd person singular)

In case the noun ends on a consonate you don’t need the letter in bracks:
arabası (his/her car), kedin (your cat), evimiz (our house), gülünüz (your (plural or polite form) rose), kitapları (his/her books)

In case of a proper name (names, towns, countries) you separate the suffix with an apostrophe:
İngiltere’si... (England’s…), İstanbul’u… (Istanbul’s…), Lale’si... (Lale’s…)

Another example but already anticipated with a genitive construction:
Mehmet’in arabası. = Mehmet’s car. Literally: Of Mehmet his car…(Mehmet’in is a genitive construction)).

In next lesson we are going to deal with all cases. Then this example sentence will be more clear.

By the way: As in English in Turkish proper nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning. Apart from that in you write always with small letters – except on a sentence’s beginning of course!

3.6 FORMING QUESTIONS

3.6.1 Questions with “mi
With mi you have the possibility of forming simple questions. These are just simple yes/no questions.

Examples:
Gelecek mi? = Will he/she/it come? – This question can be answered with yes or no, “from where” or “to where” doesn’t matter.

Depending on in which person you are asking, mi gets modified:
miyim = referring to myself => Gelecek miyim? = Will I come?
misin = referring to you => Gelecek misin? = Will you come?
mi = referring to him/her/it => Gelecek mi? = Will he/she/it come?
miyiz = referring to us => Gelecek miyiz = Will we come?
misiniz = referring to you (plural) => Gelecek misiniz? = Will you (plural) come?
mi = referring to them ==> Gelecekler mi? = Will they come?

The verb is always in 3rd person and you adjust mi accordingly to the related person (except in 3rd person as mi is already the 3rd person question particle). In plural 3rd person the verb of course has to be modified to plural form, but mi itself remains unchanged.

Important to know that mi is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an a or ı, then mi changes to
(=>accordingly mıyım, mısın, mı, mıyız, mısınız, mı)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an e or i, then mi remains unchanged
(=>accordingly miyim, misin, mi, miyiz, misiniz, mi)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an o or u, then mi changes to mu
(=>accordingly muyum, musun, mu, muyuz, musunuz, mu)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an ö or ü,then mi changes to
(=>accordingly müyüm, müsün, mü, müyüz, müsünüz, mü)

Examples:
Sigaran var mı? =Do you have a cigarette? (literally: Is there your cigarette?)
Kaleminiz var mı? = Do you (plural) have a pen? (literally: Is there your pen?)
Kalıyor musun? = Do you stay?
(Note: These examples include already the possessiv pronuns and Continuous Present which will be explained in later. Here it’s just about the mi.)

3.6.2 Other interrogative words

Kim? = Who? – Example: O kim? or Kim o? = Who is this?
Ne? = What? – Example: Ne yapıyorsun? = What are you doing?
Nerede? = Where? – Example: Kitap nerede? = Where is the book?
Nereye? = Where to? – Example: Nereye gidiyorsun? = Where are you going?
Neden? or Niye? = Why? – Example: Neden/Niye gittin? = Why did you go?
Nasıl? = How? – Example: Nasıl dinleniyoruz? = How do we rest?
Hangi? = Which? – Example: Hangi araba? = Welches Auto?
Kaç? or Ne kadar? = How much/many? Example: Fiyatı ne kadar/kaç? = How much is it? (literally: Its price is how much?)

Vocabulary:
açmak = to open; akraba = the relative; araba = the car; çocuk = the child; dinlenmek = to rest, to relax; domates = the tomato; ev = the house; fiyat = the price; gül = the rose; hangi = which; İngiltere = England; kaç = how much; kalem = the pen; kedi = the cat; kim = who; kitap = the book; nasıl = how; ne = what; ne kadar = how much; neden = why; nerede = where; nereye = whereto; niye = why; oda = the room; pencere = the window; sigara = the cigarette; var = there is/existent; yok = there is not/not existent

 

Lesson 04

THE SIX TURKISH CASES

4.1 NOMINATIVE

The nominativ is just as in English the basic noun:

Example:
araba = the car
oda = the room
pencere = the window

Remember, in Turkish there is no definite article, just the indefinite article bir = a.

4.2 ACCUSATIVE
4.2.1 Who or What?
The accusative answers the question for “Who?” oder “What?”.
For this you need the suffix -i which is following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY . Therefore the suffix can be:
-ı, -i, -u, -ü

Examples:
Peyniri verir misin? = Do you pass me the cheese? (What do you pass me?)
Çayı içiyoruz. = We are drinking the tea. (What are we drinking?)
Sütü getirdim. = brought the milk. (What did I bring?)

4.2.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
Some words end with the so called “Hard Consonantes” k, p and t. Do you remember the note in lesson 3.2? These consonantes have to be modified to ğ, b and d when followed by the accusative suffix.
Examples:
Mektubu aldın mı? = Did you receive the letter?
mektup (= the letter) actually ends with p which has to be “softened” to a b.

Müziği duymuyorum. = I don’t hear the music.
müzik (= the music) ends with k which is to be changed to ğ

4.2.3 Vowel Ending
If the noun ends with a vocal, y has to be inserted.
Examples:
Odayı gördün mü? = Did you see the room?
Lütfen kapıyı kapat. = Please close the door.

BUT: If the vocal ending results from a possessive suffix or pronoun, then you DON’T insert y, but n:

Examples:
Peyniri verir misin? = Do you pass me THE cheese?
Onun peynirini verir misin? = Do you pass me HER/HIS cheese?

Use first the possessive pronoun with its related possessive suffix (blue), then add the accusative suffix (green) connected with an n, not y.
Onun peyniriyi verir misin? would be therefore wrong!

We recommend you to use always the possessive pronoun when speaking in 3rd person plural (onun/onlarin). This way you make sure that there is no mix up of accussative suffix with possessive suffix, as they are the same when ending on a vowel:
bisikleti… on its own could mean “the bicycle” in accusative or “his/her bicycle” as possessive. Usually the intended meaning results from the context of the sentences.

4.2.4 Proper Nouns
You have to add an apostrophe to separate the noun from the suffix.
Examples:
Mehmet’i gördüm. = I saw Mehmet.
Türkçe’yi öğreniyorum. = I’m learning (the) Turkish (language).

4.2.5 Accusative Pronouns
The accusative pronouns of personal pronouns are:
beni = me
seni = you (famous example: Seni seviyorum. = I love you.)
onu = him/her/it
bizi = us
sizi = you (plural or polite form)
onları = them

4.3 DATIVE
4.3.1 Whom?… or Whereto?
Usually dative answers the question for “Whom?”. Additionally in Turkish the dative form is also used for “Whereto?”. Therefore dative in Turkish is frequently used with verbs expressing movement. Here we need the suffx -e/-a, determined by the Little Vowel Harmony:

Examples:
Eve gidiyorum. = I’m going home. (Whereto?)
Havuza gidiyor. = He/she goes to the swimming bath.(Whereto?)
Ona anlatacağım. = I will tell it to him/her. (Whom?)

4.3.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
As well as in accusative the consonantes are modified. ç, k, p and t prior to the suffix are softended to c, ğ, b and d:
Çocuğa bir masalı okudum. = I read a fairy tale to the child.

4.3.3 Vowel Ending
If the noun ends with a vocal, y has to be inserted.
Examples:
Masaya koydum. = I’ve put in on the tabel. (Where?)
Lokantaya gidiyor. = He/she/it goes to the cookshop. (Whereto?)

… except the vowel ending results from a possessive. Then again you insert an n insteat of a y:
Onun masasına koydum. = I’ve put it on his/her table.

4.3.4 Proper Nouns
You have to add an apostrophe to separate the noun from the suffix.
Examples:
Deniz’e güveniyorum. = I trust in Deniz.

4.3.5 Dative Pronouns
The dative pronouns are:
bana = me (Example: Bana verir misin? = Do you give me?)
sana = you
ona = him/her/it
bize = us
size = you (plural or polite form)
onlara = them

4.4 GENITIVE
4.4.1 Whose?
Genitive is the answer to “Whose?”. You already know a genitive construction from the example in lesson 3.5:
Mehmet’in arabası. = literal translation: Of Mehmet his car? (Whose car?)

Genitive is formed with the suffix -in. And as it is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY it can change to:
-ın, -in, -un, -ün.

Some example sentences (green the genitive suffix, blue the according possessive suffix which is familiar to you from lesson 3.5):
bakkalın penceresi = the shop’s window (whose window)
onun saçları = his/her hair (whose hair?)

4.4.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
As well as in accusative the consonantes are modified. ç, k, p and t prior to the suffix are softended to c, ğ, b and d:
bisikletin tekerleği = the bicycle’s tyre respectively simply: the bicycle tyre – tekerlek ends actually on k, but is to be softened to ğ prior to the suffix.

4.4.3 Vowel Ending
If the noun ends with a vocal, n has to be inserted. So this time it’s not a y.
odanın kapısı = the room door (the room’s door)

4.4.4 Proper Nouns
As usual an apostrophe separates the suffix from the noun:
Türkiye’nin plajları = the Turkey beaches (the beaches of Turkey)

4.4.5 Exceptions in Genitive
Well, there is an exception: After some words with vowel ending you have to insert y instead of n as mentioned in 4.4.3:
su = water and
ne = what.

Examples:
Suyun rengi mavidir. = The colour of water is blue.
-dir in mavidir is a “to be” construction you still don’t know. We will come back to this later. k in renk (= the colour) has been softened to g instead ğ, which in this case is an exception, too.
Neyin faydası? = The advantage of what?

Why these exceptions? It’s obvious: to make it not too easy for foreigners to learn Turkish. A piece of exclusivty should be kept.

4.5 ABLATIVE
4.5.1 From where, from who or from what?
The ablative is the contrary of dative. With the ablative you answer the questions “from where?”, “from who?” and “from what?”. The ablative is formed with -den/-dan, depending on the Little Vowel Harmony.

Examples:
Evden çıkıyorum. = I’m going out of the house.
Lokantadan geliyor. = He/she/it comes from the cookshop.

4.5.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
If a word ends on a hard consonante there is NO softening. This time the following suffix gets hardened, so -den/-dan is modified to -ten/-tan . This rule is valid for all hard consonantes ç, f, h, k, p, s, ş and t:
Kitaptan öğrendim. = I learned from the book.

4.5.3 Proper Nouns
An apostrophe separates the suffix from the noun:
Mehmet’ten çakmağı aldim. = I received the fire lighter from Mehmet.
İstanbul’dan geliyorum. = I’m coming from Istanbul.

4.6 LOCATIVE
4.6.1 Where?
And finally we also have to be able to answer the question “where?”, which leads us to the locative. This is to be formed with the suffix -de/-da determined by the Little Vowel Harmony.

Examples:
Lokantada. = In the cookshop.
Evde. = In the house.

4.6.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
Also here the following suffixe have to be hardened, so -de/-da are then -te/-ta:
Sokakta. = On the street.

4.6.3 Proper Nouns
Once again insert an apostrophe to separate the suffix :
İngiltere’de. = In England.
Mehmet’te. = At Mehmet.

4.6.4 Remarks to the Locative
a) The locative suffix -de/-da is not to be mixed up with the word de or da which means “too”. It is a single word following the Little Vowel Harmony.

Examples:
Mehmet de evde. = Mehmet is at home, too.
O da lokantada. = He/she/it is in the cookshop, too.
Ben de gidiyorum. = I go, too.

  1. b) The locative can be combined with var/yok as well as with the question particle mi:
    Antalya’da plaj var mı? = Is there a beach in Antalya, too?
  2. c) The location prepositions are also connected with the locative:
    nerede = where? which you already know. Furthermore:
    burada = here
    şurada = there (visible)
    orada = (over) there (not visible anymore)

Colloquially these prepositions are sometims shortend to
nerde, burda, şurda and orda.
Burda plaj yok. = Here is no beach.
Ama orda havuz var. = But over there is a swimming bath.

4.7 REMARK TO THE DIFFERENT CASES IN REFERENCE TO PROPER NOUNS

Forming the different case suffixes it’s important to know that not the way of writing but the pronounciation determines the suffixes. This remark especially refers to non-turkish names. The following examples should clarify what this means:

Burbanks’de. = In Burbanks.
=> The last vowel in Burbanks is an a, nevertheless the Turk would use de and not “da”, because of the way the a is spoken which determines the suffix de.
Burbanks’den (instead of ‘dan). = From Burbanks.
Burbanks’e (instead of ‘a). = To Burbanks.

Vocabulary:
anlatmak = to tell; bakkal = the grocery shop; bisiklet = the bicycle; çakmak = the fire lighter; çay = the tea; de/da = too; duymak = to hear; fayda = the advantage; görmek = to see; güvenmek = to trust; havuz = the swimming bath; içmek = to drink; kapatmak = to close; kapı = the door; koymak = to put, to place; lokanta = the cookshop, place where you can eat snacks; lütfen = please; masa = the table; masal = the fairy tale; mavi = blue; mektup = the letter; müzik = the music; öğrenmek = to learn; öğretmek = to teach; okumak = to read – also: to study; peynir = the cheese; plaj = the beach; renk = the colour; saç = the hair; sokak = the street; su = the water; süt = the milk; tekerlek = the tyre

Lesson 05

“TO BE” OR “NOT TO BE” – AND “TO HAVE” OR “NOT TO HAVE”

5.1 “TO BE”

In order to be something in Turkish you need following suffixes:
1st person singular (I am): -(y)im / -(y)ım / -(y)um / -(y)ün
2nd person singular (you are): -sin / -sın / -sun / -sün
3rd person singular (he/she/it is): -dir / -dır / -dur / -dür
1st person plural (we are): -(y)iz / (y)ız / -(y)uz / -(y)üz
2nd person plural (you are): -siniz / -sınız / -sunuz / -sünüz
3rd person plural (they are): -dirler / -dırlar / -durlar / -dürler

These suffixes follow the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY.

The letter y is put in bracks as it is only used if the word ends on a vowel.
Ususally the suffix is not used in 3rd person. For reasons of completeness we mentioned it anyway. Some example sentences:

İyiyim. = I’m good. (which has two meanings, “to be good” in the meaning of “good and evil” or “to be good, fine” as response to “how are you?”)
İyisin. = Your’re good.
İyi(dir). = He/she/it is fine.
İyiyiz. = We’re good.
İyisiniz. = You’re (plural or polite form) good.
İyi(dirler). = They’re good.

Kötüsün. = You’re bad.
Hastayım. = I’m ill.

As usual proper nouns are separated with an apostrophe:
İstanbul’dur. = This is Istanbul.
Mehmet’im. = I’m Mehmet.

Examples in combination with the locative:
Evdeyim. = I’m at home.
Türkiye’deyiz. = We’re in Turkey.
Lokantada(dır). = He/she/it is in the cookshop.

The suffix for “to be” is a verb. Remember that verbs should always be put a the sentence’s end? Here the sentences consist only of one word but still the verb (suffix) remains at the end.

Also you can combine with the known interrogative words:
Nasılsın? = How are you?
Kimsiniz? = Who are you (plural or polite form)?
Nerdeyiz? = Where are we?

5.2 THE NEGATION OF “TO BE”

To express “not to be” you need an additional word: değil.
This is placed before the “to be” suffix. If you use for instance an adjective like iyi or hasta, this remains unchanged and you put değil after it, extended by the accordig “to be” suffix.

Examples:
İyi değil(ler). = They’re not good.
Kötü değilsin. = You’re not bad.
Hasta değilim. = I’m not ill.
Evde değilim. = I’m not at home.
Türkiye’de değiliz. = We’re not in Turkey.
Lokantada değil(dir). = He/she/it isn’t in the cookshop.

5.3 “TO HAVE” AND “NOT TO HAVE”

Turkish doesn’t offer an explicit verb for “to have”. Instead it is a combination of possessive suffixes and var/yok. As you already know both components, you therefore know how “to have something” in Turkish: :

Bisikletim var. = I have a bicycle. – literally: My bicycele is existent.
Cep telefonu yok. = He/she has a mobile. – literally: His/her mobile is not existent.

Also you already know this construction possessive + var/yok related to the interrogative particle mi (examples in lesson 3.6.1):
Sigaran var mı? = Do you have a cigarette?
Kaleminiz var mı? = Do you (plural or polite form) have a pen?

Vocabulary:
bu = this; büyük = big; cep = the pocket; cep telefonu = the mobile, cell phone; çanta = the bag; hasta = ill; iyi = good; kötü = bad, evil; küçük = small; poşet = the shopping bag; şu = this

Lesson 06

THE PRESENT

6.1 CONTINUOUS PRESENT

Definition: An action which is taking place just in this moment. This form is equal to the English present continuous (-ing form).

Formed with the suffix -(i)yor.

This suffix follows the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
If the last vowel in verb stem is an a or ı, you change -iyor to -ıyor.
If the last vowel in verb stem is an e or i, -iyor remains unchanged.
If the last vowel in verb stem is an o or u, you change -iyor to -uyor.
If the last vowel in verb stem is anö or ü, you change -iyor to -üyor.

The vowels i, ı, u und ü are put in bracks because they only occur if the verb stem ends on a consonante.

Additionally to the suffix for –(i)yor-present you have to add the personal pronoun suffix. It is similar to the forms you learned in lesson 5.1 “to be” – with two exceptions in each 3rd person:

-(i)yorum = 1st person singular I
-(i)yorsun = 2nd person singular you
-(i)yor = ATTENTION! Here there is no personal pronoun suffix as the basic (i)yor-form is already 3rd person singular he/she/it
-(i)yoruz = 1st person plural we
-(i)yorsunuz = 2nd person plural you (or polite form)
-(i)yorlar = 3rd person plural they

Examples:
yapmak = to do (=> verb stem yap-):
yapıyorum = I’m doing
yapıyorsun = you’re doing
yapıyor = he/she/it is doing
yapıyoruz = we’re doing
yapıyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) doing
yapıyorlar = they’re doing

The personal pronuns (ben, sen, o, etc.) usually are just used for emphasizing:
ben yapıyorum = ICH mache gerade!

Another example:
düşünmek = to think (=> verb stem düşün-):
düşünüyorum = I’m thinking
düşünüyorsun = you’re thinking
düşünüyor = he/she/it is thinking
düşünüyoruz = we’re thinking
düşünüyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) thinking
düşünüyorlar = they’re thinking

Another verb which is often used makes an exception when using the (i)yor-present:
demek = to say (=> verb stem de- but):
diyorum = I’m saying
diyorsun = you’re saying
diyor = he/she/it is saying
diyoruz = we’re saying
diyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) saying
diyorlar = they’re saying

The e of the verb stem is getting transfered into an i. This way the word can be speaken more easily, instead of “deyorum”. The same happens with the verb yemek = to eat:
yiyorum, yiyorsun,

6.2. NEGATION OF CONTINUOUS PRESENT

In Lesson 2 you learned that all turkish verbs end with -mak or -mek. For negating the infinitive you have to add -ma/-me directly in front of -mak/-mek:
yapmak = to do ==> yapmamak = not to do
vermek = to give ==> vermemek = not to give

Now, to negate the turkish continuous present we just need a single letter: -m. This is to be added prior to the suffix -(i)yor and it looks then like this: -miyor. Simple, isn’t it? A single letter just changes the meaning of a sentence…

Examples:
yapmıyorum = I’m not doing
yapmıyorsun = you’re not doing
yapmıyor = he/she/it is not doing
yapmıyoruz = we’re not doing
yapmıyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) not doing
yapmıyorlar = they’re not doing

düşünmüyorum = I’m not thinking
düşünmüyorsun = you’re not thinking
düşünmüyor = he/she/it is not thinking
düşünmüyoruz = we’re not thinking
düşünmüyorsunuz = you’re (plural or polite form) not thinking
düşünmüyorlar = they’re not thinking

6.3 SIMPLE PRESENT (“AORIST”)

In Turkish simple present is used to express something which takes place regularly or which is basically true. For example: every day you go to work, to school, to university, etc.

This present is formed with the suffix -(i)r.

The suffix is determined by GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a or ı, -ir changes to -ır.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e or i, -ir remains unchanged.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an o or u, -ir changes to -ur.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an ö or ü, -ir changes to -ür.

The suffixes for personal pronouns now change, too still following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY: :
1st person singular: -ırım / -irim / -urum / -ürüm
2nd person singular: -ırsın / -irsin / -ursun / -ürsün
3rd person singular: -ır / -ir / -ur / -ür (no additional suffix as basic -ir is already the 3rd person singular)
1st person plural : -ırız / -iriz / -uruz / -ürüz
2nd person plural: -ırsınız / -irsiniz / -ursunuz / -ürsünüz
3rd person plural: -ırlar / -irler / -urlar / -ürler

Examples:
düşünmek = to think (=> verb stem düşün-)
düşünürüm = I think
düşünürsün = you think
düşünür = he/she/it thinks
düşünürüz = we think
düşünürsünüz = you (plural or polite form) think
düşünürler = they think

konuşmak = to talk (=> verb stem konuş-)
konuşurum = I talk
konuşursun = you talk
konuşur = he/she/it talk
konuşuruz = we talk
konuşursunuz = you (plural or polite form) talk
konuşurlar = they talk

ATTENTION, exceptions! They are some verb stems which carry only one syllable. This leads to a transformation of suffix -ir to -er or -ar (Little Vowel Harmoy)
Beispiele:
yapmak = to do (=> verb stem yap-)
yaparım = I do
yaparsın = you do
yapar = he/she/it do
yaparız = we do
yaparsınız = you (plural or polite form) do
yaparlar = they do

Or:
dövmek = to beat up (=> verb stem döv-)
döverim = I beat up
döversin = you beat up
döver = he/she/it beat up
döveriz = we beat up
döversiniz = you (plural or polite form) beat up
döverler = they beat up

BUT: Also the monosyllabic verb stems have exceptions, which means that the suffix for these verbs has NOT to be changed from -ir into -er/-ar:
almak = to take (alırım, alırsın, alır, …)
bilmek = to know (bilirim, bilirsin, bilir, …)
bulmak = to find (bulurum, bulursun, bulur, …)
durmak = to stop (dururum, durursun,…)
gelmek = to come (gelirim, gelirsin,…)
görmek = to see (görürüm, görürsün,…)
kalmak = to stay (kalırım, kalırsın,…)
olmak = to become (olurum, olursun,…)
ölmek = to die (ölürüm, ölürsün,…)
sanmak = to believe, to suppose (sanırım, sanırsın,…)
varmak = to arrive (varırım, varırsın,…)
vermek = to give (veririm, verirsin,…)
vurmak = to beat (vururum, vurursun,…)

You therefore have to keep 13 monosyllabic verb stems in mind as they make the exception of the exception – and therefore are regular again. We summarize:
1) One-syllable verb stems cause change of suffix -ir into -er/-ar.
2) Except for the 13 above mentioned verbs.

At least we present you now a real exception:
gitmek = to go (=> verb stem git-)
giderim = I go
gidersin = you go
gider = he/she/it go
gideriz = we go
gidersiniz = you (plural or polite form) go
giderler = they go

-ir is changed to -er because it’s a monosyllabic word and t is softened to d. You could say now this is because t is a hard consonante. But:
atmak = to throw (=> verb stem at-)
atarım = I throw
atarsın = you throw
atar = he/she/it throw
atarız = we throw
atarsınız = you (plural or polite form) throw
atarlar = they throw

Here again a monosyllabic verb stem with an ending on a hard consonante. But this time there is no softening. Therefore gitmek is a real irregular verb. But no language without irregulations. Anyway it is also more easy to say gidersin instead of “gitersin”, isn’t it?
There is another verb where you soften t to d:
etmek = functional verb for “to do something”
Example: telefon etmek = to call on the phone – literally: to use the phone (telefon ederim = I call on the phone respectively I use the phone)

By the way, also in the Continuous Present you soften t in gitmek and etmek to d, which makes gidiyorum,… respectively ediyorum,…

In general in Turkish this present tense is also called “Aorist”, though in other languages this expression is used for past tenses. But actually you don’t have to focus on that. More important is to know how and when you use this tense.

6.4. NEGATION OF SIMPLE PRESENT

Of course there is also a negation for the present tense. Instead of the suffix -ir you now use the suffix -ma(z)/me(z) (Little Vowel Harmony) extended again by the according peronal pronoun suffix. The “z” is put into bracks as it is not used in each 1st person.

Examples:
yapmam = I don’t do
yapmazsın = you don’t do
yapmaz = he/she/it doesn’t do
yapmayız = we don’t do
yapmazsınız = you (plural or polite form) don’t do
yapmazlar = they don’t do

düşünmem = I don’t think
düşünmezsin = you don’t think
düşünmez = he/she/it don’t think
düşünmeyiz = we don’t think
düşünmezsiniz = you (plural or polite form) don’t think
düşünmezler = they don’t think

Vocabulary:
atmak = to throw; bulmak = to find; demek = to say; dövmek = to beat up; durmak = to stop; etmek = functional verb to use; gelmek = to come; görmek = to see; kalmak = to stay; konmak = to land; olmak = to become; sanmak = to believe, to suppose; varmak = to achieve, to arrive; yemek = to eat – or: the meal; yenmek = to win over

 

Lesson 07

THE PAST

7.1 SIMPLE PAST

The simple past describes actions which are completed, for example actions which happened yesterday, last week or longer time ago. So it is the tense for “experienced and/or narrated past”.

Formed with the suffix –di it is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so it can be
-dı, -di, -du or -dü.

Example:
bilmek = to known (=> verb stem bil-)
bildim = I knew
bildin = you knew
bildi = he/she/it knew
bildik = we knew
bildiniz = you (plural or polite form) knew
bildiler = they knew

As you may have noticed in 1st person plural the personal pronoun suffix now ends with a “k” instead of “z”.

Of course also in this tense the famous “Hard Consonantes” use their influence. But this time they don’t get softened. Do you remember the hint in lesson 3.2? Some suffixes get hardened when a word ends with one of the hard consonantes. Therefore the simple past suffix has to pass a two fisted training in order to being able standing these consonantes and is changed to -ti:

yaptım = I did
yaptın = you did
yaptı = he/she/it did
yaptık = we did
yaptınız = you (plural or polite form) did
yaptılar = they did

Also here it might be more clear that it’s more easy to speak out yaptım instead of “yapdım”. Otherwise it would just sound too… hmmm… just too soft!

Another example:
çalışmak = to work (=> verb stem çalış-)
çalıştım = I worked
çalıştın = you worked
çalıştı = he/she/it worked
çalıştık = we worked
çalıştınız = you (plural or polite forem) worked
çalıştılar = they worked

At the same time the suffix -di is also to past form of “to be”:
büyüktü = he/she/it was big

When ending on a vowel insert a y:
hastaydı = he/she/it was ill

Furthermore you probably had or had not something in the past:
Arabam vardı. = I had a car.
Arabam yoktu. = I didn’t have a car.

7.2 NEGATION OF SIMPLE PAST

Short and painless: Negation of simple past is made by the suffix -ma/-me which is put in front of the past tense suffix:

yapmadım = I didn’t do
yapmadın = you didn’t do
yapmadı = he/she/it didn’t do
yapmadık = we didn’t do
yapmadınız = you (plural or polite form) didn’t do
yapmadılar = they didn’t do

This time the –di suffix doesn’t have to be hardened as it is “protected” by the negation particle.

Another particle:
düşünmedim = I didn’t think
düşünmedin = you didn’t think
düşünmedi = he/she/it didn’t think
düşünmedik = we didn’t think
düşünmediniz = you (plural or polite form) didn’t think
düşünmediler = they didn’t think

Remember: “to be” in Turkish is negated with değil. So then -di as the past suffix of “to be”:
büyük değildi = he/she/it wasn’t big

7.3 PAST PROGRESSIVE

With this past tense you describe exactly the same as in English: an action which was about to take place but wasn’t completed. So it is the past counterpart to the continuous present (-iyor). You were about to do something as something else happened.

Formed with the suffix -(i)yordu.

As this suffix follows GREAT VOWEL HARMONY it can have following forms: -ıyordu, -iyordu, -uyordu or -üyordu.

biliyordum = I was knowing
biliyordun = you were knowing
biliyordu = he/she/it was knowing
biliyorduk = we were knowing
biliyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) were knowing
biliyordular = they were knowing

yapıyordum = I was doing
yapıyordun = you were doing
yapıyordu = he/she/it was doing
yapıyorduk = we were doing
yapıyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) were doing
yapıyordular = they were doing

Example sentence:
Lale’yi düşünüyordum. Telefon çaldı. = I was thinking of Lale as the phone rang.

A certain action was taking place (thinking of Lale) as another action interrupted (the ringing of the phone).

7.4 NEGATION OF PAST PROGRESSIVE

For negation you need to put the letter -m in front of the past suffix:

bilmiyordum = I wasn’t knowing
bilmiyordun = you weren’t knowing
bilmiyordu = he/she/it wasn’t knowing
bilmiyorduk = we weren’t knowing
bilmiyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) weren’t knowing
bilmiyordular = they weren’t knowing

yapmıyordum = I wasn’t doing
yapmıyordun = you weren’t doing
yapmıyordu = he/she/it wasn’t doing
yapmıyorduk = we weren’t doing
yapmıyordunuz = you (plural or polite form) weren’t doing
yapmıyordular = they weren’t doing

Vocabulary:
büyütmek = to extend, to exaggerrate; çalmak = to ring, but also: to steal; çalışmak = to work; dalmak = to dive; doldurmak = to fill in; kum = the sand; restoran = the restaurant; şemsiye = the sunshade; yazmak = to write; yüzmek = to swim

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 08

8.1 THE FUTURE

The future describes same as in English an action which did not happen yet but is going to happen.

Formed with the suffix -ecek/-acak.

Suffix determined by the Little Vowel Harmony:
If last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö or ü the suffix is -ecek.
If last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u the suffix is -acak.

… and with the personal pronoun suffixes it looks as follows:

bileceğim = I’m going to know
bileceksin = you’re going to know
bilecek = he/she/it is going to know
bileceğiz = we’re going to know
bileceksiniz = you’re (plural) going to know
bilecekler = they’re going to know

In each 1st person the “hard consonante” k is softened into ğ. The reason once again is the harmony in speaking: it is softer to say bileceğim instead of “bilecekim”. The ğ prolongues the e as explained in lesson 1 referring to the alphabet (it therefore sounds more like “bilecea-im”).

yapacağım = i’m going to make
yapacaksın = you’re going to make
yapacak = he/she/it is going to make
yapacağız = we’re going to make
yapacaksınız = you’re going to make
yapacaklar = they’re going to make

In colloquial language/writing the 1st person can be shortened, for example: instead of yapacağım / yapacağız you write yapacam / yapacaz (often used in letters, sms messages, etc.).

8.2 NEGATION OF FUTURE

By inserting -me/-ma before the future suffix you negate the verb. Accordingly it is then -mayacak or -meyecek (insertion of y after a vowel):

bilmeyeceğim = I’m not going to know
bilmeyeceksin = you’re not going to know
bilmeyecek = he/she/it is not going to know
bilmeyeceğiz = we’re not going to know
bilmeyeceksiniz = you’re (plural) not going to know
bilmeyecekler = they’re not going to know

yapmayacağım = I’m not going to make
yapmayacaksın = you’re not going to make
yapmayacak = he/she/it is not going to make
yapmayacağız = we’re not going to make
yapmayacaksınız = you’re (plural) not going to make
yapmayacakler = they’re not going to make

Vocabulary:
ayırtmak = to reserve; izin = the vacation (or: the permission); gelecek zaman =the future; gezinti = the walk; gezmek = to walk, promenade; girmek = to walk in, to join; kullanmak = to use (e.g. a car = driving); seyahat = the journey; tatil = the holidays; yer = the location, place; yer ayırtma = the seat reservation; yolculuk = the travel, voyage

Lesson 09

9.1 UNDEFINED PAST

The undefined past describes like the simple past an action which has been completed – with a small but important difference: you don’t tell “first hand” as you didn’t have been there when the action occured. Someone else told us his story and we re-tell it. This tense is very typical for jokes, fairy tales and stories.

Formed with the suffix –miş.

This suffix is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY which means it can have the forms
-mış, -miş, -muş and -müş.

Examples:
bilmişim = I knew (it might appear difficult to tell “2nd hand” that you knew something, but it can be translated with “I was supposed to know” because so has been told…)
bilmişsin = you knew (so has been told…)
bilmiş = he/she/it knew
bilmişiz = we knew
bilmişsiniz = you (plural) knew
bilmişler = they knew

yapmışım = I made (“I was supposed to make” because so has been told…)
yapmışsın = you made
yapmış = he/she/it made
yapmışız = we made
yapmışsınız = you (plural) made
yapmışlar = they made

The suffix -miş is at the same time the to be-suffix in the undefined past:
büyükmüş = he/she/it was big

When ending on a vowel you have to insert an y:
hastaymış = he/she/it was ill

To have in the undefined past:
Arabası varmış. = He/she/it had a car.
Arabası yokmuş. = He/she/it hadn’t a car.

9.2 NEGATION OF UNDEFINED PAST

For negating the suffix you need to insert once again -ma/-me in before the suffix –miş:

bilmemişim = I didn’t (wasn’t supposed to) know
bilmemişsin = you didn’t know
bilmemiş = he/she/it didn’t know
bilmemişiz = we didn’t know
bilmemişsiniz = you (plural) didn’t know
bilmemişler = they didn’t know

yapmamışım = I didn’t (wasn’t supposed to) make
yapmamışsın = you didn’t make
yapmamış = he/she/it didn’t make
yapmamışız = we didn’t make
yapmamışsınız = you didn’t make
yapmamışler = they didn’t make

Remember: “to be” is negated with değil:
büyük değilmiş =he/she/it wasn’t big (… wasn’t supposed to be big)

Vocabulary:
adam = the man, human; ama = but; altın = the gold; çok = much, many; geçirmek = to pass; gün = the day; insan = the fellow, human; insanlık = the humanity; İrlanda = Ireland; kadın = the woman; kişi = the person; köy = the village; pahalı = expensive

Lesson 10

10.1 THE NEED TO DO SOMETHING

In Turkish there are THREE possibilities to express the need or due to do something.

10.1.1 “-meli/-malı”

-meli/-malı is determined by the Little Vowel Harmony.

Beispiele:
gitmeliyim = I have to go
gitmelisin = you have to go
gitmeli = he/she/it has to go
gitmeliyiz = we have to go
gitmelisiniz = you (plural) have to go
gitmeliler = they have to go

Also you can put this form of expressing need into the two known past tenses (above samples are in present tense). Notice that an y is inserted:

di-past / miş-past
gitmeliydim = I had to go / gitmeliymişim = I was supposed to have to go
gitmeliydin / gitmeliymişsin
gitmeliydi / gitmeliymiş
gitmeliydik / gitmeliymişiz
gitmeliydiniz / gitmeliymişsiniz
gitmeliydiler / gitmeliymişler

10.1.2 Negation of “-meli/-malı”

For negation you have to insert -me/-ma (Little Vowel Harmony).

Examples:
gitmemeliyim = I don’t have to go
gitmemelisin = you don’t have to go
gitmemeli = he/she/it doesn’t have to go
gitmemeliyiz = we don’t have to go
gitmemelisiniz = you (plural) don’t have to go
gitmemeliler = they don’t have to go

You can use the negation form -memeli/-mamalı also to say something in the sense of “should not”.

Examples:
Bugün eve kalmamalısın. = You shouldn’t stay at home today.
Yarın çalışmamalıyım. = I shouldn’t work tomorrow.

10.1.3 “Lazım”

lazım actually means “necessary” and is an unchangeable word in a combination which expresses the need of doing something. As part of this combination you add the suffix -me/ma (Little Vowel Harmony) and a possessive suffix to the verb. You already know -me/ma as a negation particle but here it fulfills another function.

Examples:
Gitmem lazım. = I have to go. – literally: My going is necessary.
Gitmen lazım. = You have to go.
Gitmesi lazım. = He/she/it has to go.
Gitmemiz lazım. = We have to go.
Gitmeniz lazım. = You (plural) have to go.
Gitmeleri lazım. = They have to go.

Another example:
Bunu yapmam lazım. = I have to do this.
Bunu yapman lazım. = You have to do this.
Bunu yapması lazım. = He/she/it has to do this.
Bunu yapmamız lazım. = We have to do this.
Bunu yapmanız lazım. = You (plural) have to do this.
Bunu yapmaları lazım. = They have to do this.

10.1.4 Negation of “lazım”

The negation is very simple. As lazım is unchangeable you need another word for negating it: değil.
Gitmem lazım değil. = I don’t have to go.
Bunu yapmam lazım değil. = I don’t have to do this.

10.1.5 “Gerekmek”

The third option to express need to do something is offered with the verb gerekmek which directly could be translated “must”. Also like in combination with lazım you add -me/-ma and a possessive suffix to the verb.

Examples:
Gitmem gerekiyor. = I have to go.
Gitmen gerekiyor. = You have to go.
Gitmesi gerekiyor. = He/she/it has to go.
Gitmemiz gerekiyor. = We have to go.
Gitmeniz gerekiyor. = You (plural) have to go.
Gitmeleri gerekiyor. = They have to go.

In this example we used gerekmek in (i)yor-present tense. gerekmek always is put into the 3rd person singular, as it refers to the “doing” itself, not to the person who acts. You can combine also in the other so far known tenses.

Examples:
PAST: Dün akşam eve gitmem gerekti. = Yesterday evening I had to go home..

FUTURE: Yarın havalimanına gitmem gerekecek. = Tomorrow I’m going to have to go to the airport..

İR-PRESENT: Her gün okula gitmem gerek. = Everyday I have to go to school.

Maybe you ask now “where is the ir-suffix?”. It’s not necessary as in this present tense the verb stem of gerekmek is sufficient to express the need.

Actually you could also blank out the other tense suffixes as the words dün and yarın already indicate when the actions take place.

10.1.6 Negation of “gerekmek”

For negating gerekmek you need the additional suffix -m(e), in infinitive form: gerekmemek.

Examples:
Gitmesi gerekmiyor. = He/she/it hasn’t to go.
Dün eve gitmem gerekmedi. = Yesterday I hadn’t to go home.
Yarın havalimanına gitmen gerekmeyecek. = Tomorrow you’re not going to have to go to the airport.

10.2 “LET’S…” / “SHALL WE…?” – THE OPTATIVE

If you like to propose a certain action, Turkish offers the optative. It sounds like a additional case but it isn’t. For using the optative you need the suffix -e)yim/-(e)lim. It is only used for each 1st person (singular and plural) and follows the Little Vowel Harmony:

1st person singular:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u the suffix is -(a)yım.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö oder ü the suffix is -(e)yim.

2nd person plural:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o oder u the suffix is -(a)lım.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö oder ü the suffix is -(e)lim.

e/a in bracks is only added if the verb stem ends on a consonante.

Examples:
Ona sorayım. = Let me ask him/her.
Or as a question with particle mi:
Ona sorayım mı? = Shall I ask him/her?

Hadi, gidelim. = Come on, let’s go.
Gidelim mi? = Shall we go?

Vocabulary:
büro = the office; değil = (be) not; dinlemek = to listen; dün = yesterday; gerekmek = to must; havalimanı (or havaalanı) = the airport; İspanya = Spain; lazım = necessary; liman = the (sea) port; sormak = to ask; tamirhane = the garage (repair shop); tamir etmek = to reopair; yarın = tomorrow

 

Lesson 11

11.1 THE CONDITIONAL

The conditional describes a hypothetical action. Something which can be translated in simple form with “would be, would do”.

In Turkish you form the conditional with the suffix -sa/-sa.

The suffix follows the Little Vowel Harmony:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö or ü the suffix is -se.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u the suffix is -sa.

The examples:
bilsem = if I would know
bilsen = if you would know
bilse = if he/she/it would know
bilsek = if we would know
bilseniz = if you (plural) would know
bilseler = if they would know

yapsam = if I would do
yapsan = if you would do
yapsa = if he/she/it would do
yapsak = if we would do know
yapsanız = if you (plural) would do
yapsalar = if they would do

In conditonal of course you can change also the tenses:
yapsaydım = if I would have done
yapsaydın = if you would have done
yapsaydı = if he/she/it would have done
yapsaydık = if we would have done
yapsaydınız = if you (plural) would have done
yapsaydılar = if they would have done

11.2 NEGATION OF CONDITONAL

For negating the conditional we use the famous suffix -me/-ma:

bilmesem = if I wouldn’t know
bilmesen = if you wouldn’t know
bilmese = if he/she/it wouldn’t know
bilmesek = if we wouldn’t know
bilmeseniz = if you (plural) wouldn’t know
bilmeseler = if they wouldn’t know

yapmasam = if I wouldn’t do
yapmasan = if you wouldn’t do
yapmasa = if he/she/it wouldn’t do
yapmasak = if we wouldn’t do
yapmasanız = if you (plural) wouldn’t do
yapmasalar = if they wouldn’t do

11.3 MODIFICATIONS OF CONDITIONAL

You can also combine the conditional with var or yok:

varsa = if there is
yoksa = if there isn’t

Domates varsa, bana lütfen iki kilo verir misin? = If there are tomatos please give me 2 kilos?

11.4 “IF” = “EĞER”

Another option to form conditional phrases is offered by eğer. Anyway the suffixes –se/-sa still have to be used but if you begin your sentence with eğer the listener knows automatically that a conditional sentence is now following.
Example:
Eğer domates varsa, bana lütfen iki kilo verir misin?

Vocabulary:
akşam = the evening; aramak = to call (by phone); cevap = the answer; cevap vermek = to answer; çağırmak = to call; çarşı = the (city) centre, the market; eğer = if; pazar = the market, Sunday; sabah = the morning; zaman = the time

Lesson 12

TIME DATA

12.1 DAY AND WEEK TIMES

hafta = week
bugün = today
dün = yesterday
önceki günü = before yesterday
yarın = tomorrow
öbür günü = after tomorrow

Pazartesi = Monday
Salı = Tuesday
Çarşamba = Wednesday
Perşembe = Thursday
Cuma = Friday
Cumartesi = Saturday
Pazar = Sunday

Week days are proper nouns and there written with capital letters at the beginning.

Examples:
Bugün Pazartesi. = Today is Monday.
Yarın Salı (günü). = Tomorrow is Tuesday.

gün (= day) is used frequently in combination with week days but it’s optional – literally it would mean: “Tomorrow is Tuesday day.”, which of course is double said but only in a literal translation.
Perşembe (günü) buluşalım mi? =Shall we meet on Thursday?
Dün Pazardı. = Yesterday was Sunday.
Here we use a past tense as yesterday is past and you just add the according “to be”-form to the week day.

Day times
sabah = morning
öğle = noon
öğleden sonra = afternoon
akşam = evening
gece = night

12.2 MONTHS AND SEASONS

ay = month (also the moon)
yıl = year

Ocak = January
Şubat = February
Mart = March
Nisan = April
Mayıs = May
Haziran = June
Temmuz = July
Ağustos = August
Eylül = September
Ekim = October
Kasım = November
Aralık = December

Month are also proper nouns.

The date is just a number with months plus year. So the answer to question
Bugün ayın kaçı? = Which date is today?
could be for example
3 Nisan 1998 (üç Nisan bin dokuz yüz doksan sekiz) = 3rd April 1998
22 Eylül 1632 (yirmi iki Eylül bin altı yüz otuz iki) = 22nd September 1632

The four seasons:
mevsim = season
bahar oder ilkbahar = spring
yaz = summer
sonbahar = autumn
kış = winter

There is an exception with the seasons:
If you like to say “in spring” or “in autumn” you just use the locative as known:
(ilk)baharda oder sonbaharda
Exception : “in summer” or “in winter”, then it’s:
yazın or kışın

12.3 CLOCK TIMES

saat = hour (also the clock, watch)
dakika = minute
saniye = second

Furthermore: çeyrek = quarter and buçuk = half.

et’s say it’s a quarter past 3 and somebody asks you:
Saat kaç? = What time is it?
You have following options to answer:
1) Simple way: saat beş on beş = 5.15 (five fifteen).
2) or a bit more formal: saat beşi çeyrek geçiyor = a quarter past five – literal translation: 5 is passed by a quarter.

For telling the time you need the accusative, if you’re in the first half of an hour.

On the other side, when telling the time for the second half of an hour you use the dative:
1) saat beş kırk beş = 5.45.
2) saat altıya çeyrek var = a quarter to 6 – literal translation: There is a quarter until 6.

The “half past” times are neutral: saat on iki buçuk (simple way: saat on iki otuz) = half past twelve (12.30)

For fixing a time you use the locative and replace var by kala and geçiyor by geçe.
Saat kaçta? = At what time?:
Saat iki (on dört) buçukta. or Saat iki (on dört) otuzda. = At half past 2. – At 14.30.
Saat dört (on altı) buçuğa beş kala. or Saat dört (on altı) yirmi beşte. = At five to half past 4. – At 16.25.
Saat dokuza çeyrek kala. or Saat sekiz kırk beşte. = At quarter to 9. – At 8.45.
Saat onu çeyrek geçe. oder Saat on on beşte. = At quarter past 10. – At 10.15.

It’s up to you if you use the simple or the formal way to express time. Both versions are right and common.

12.4 DEFINING TIME PERIODS

12.4.1 “Before/ago” and “after/in”
önce = before/ago
sonra = after/in

Examples:
Üç hafta önce. = 3 weeks ago.
İki ay sonra. = After/in 2 months.
Altı gün önce. = 6 days ago.
Beş yıl sonra. = After/in 1 year.
Saat ikiden sonra. = After 10 o’clock.

12.4.2 “From… until/to…”
A combination of ablative/dative and kadar defines also time period.
Examples:
Pazartesi’den Cuma’ya kadar. = From Monday to Friday.
Saat dokuzdan üçe kadar. = From 9 to 3 o’clock.
Temmuz’den Eylül’a kadar. = From July to September.
On buçuktan on ikiye çeyrek kalaya kadar. = From half past 10 until quarter to 12.

12.4.3 More Prepositions
…(always in combination with ablative):
beri = since (for)
Saat yediden beri kullanıyorum. = I’m driving since 7 o’clock.
Yedi saatten beri kullanıyorum. = I’m driving for 7 hours.

evvel = before
Saat yediden evvel vardık. = We arrived before 7 o’clock.
Ondan evvel vardık. = We arrived before him/her.
(Not to mistake with önce:
Yedi saat önce vardık. = We arrived 7 hours ago.)

itibaren = (as) from
Saat sekizden itibaren arayacağım. = As from 8 o’clock I’ll call you.
Ocaktan itibaren, diyet yapacağım. = As from January I’m going to make a diet.

Vocabulary:
beri = since, for; çünkü = because; evvel = before; itibaren = as from; kadar = to, until; önce = before/ago; sigara içmek = to smoke (to “drink” the cigarette); ve = and; veya = or

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 13

13.1 THE PASSIVE

The passive is formed with the suffixes -il- and -in-. Both suffixes follow the GREAT VOWEL HAMONY, therefore they can be modified to:
-ıl-, -il- , -ul- and -ül-

… accordingly with -in-:
-ın-, -in-, -un- and -ün-

-il- is used for all verb stems ending with consonantes, EXCEPT the verb stem is ending with an l (L), then you use -in-.

Examples in infinitive:
yapmak = to make – yapılmak = to be made
kapatmak = to close – kapatılmak = to be closed
vermek = to give – verilmek = to be passed
görmek = to see- görülmek = to be seen

Verb stems ending with l:
bulmak = to find – bulunmak = to be found
almak = to take- alınmak = to be taken

13.1.2 Vowel Ending
If the verb stem ends on a vocal the suffix is shortened to -n-:
yemek = to eat – yenmek = to be eaten
beklemek = to wait – beklenmek = to be expected

13.1.3 Passive in Different Tenses
You can put the passive into different tenses.

Examples:
İYOR-PRESENT:
Pencere açılıyor. = The window is being opened.
İR-PRESENT:
Pencere açılır. = The window is opened.
Dİ-PAST:
Pencere açıldı. = The window has been opened.
MİŞ-PAST:
Pencere açılmış. = The window was openend.
FUTURE:
Pencere açılacak. = The window is going to be opened.
CONDITIONAL:
Pencere açılsa. = If the window is opened.

Actually you just construct a new verb if you form the passive and this new verb can be handled as you learned in former lessons.

 

13.2 PASSIVE IN COMBINATION WITH PERSONS

If you want to express that a certain action is taken by a person you have to combine the passive form with tarafından (= from side of):
Bu mektup Mehmet tarafından gönderildi. = The letter has been sent by Mehmet.
Kitap Yaşar Kemal tarafından yazılmış. = The book has been written by Yaşar Kemal.

13.3 NEGATION OF THE PASSIVE

To negate just add -me/-ma (Little Vowel Harmony) to the passive form:

yapılmamak = to be not made
verilmemek = to be not passed
görülmemek = to be not seen
bulunmamak = to be not found
yenmemek = to be not eaten

Sample sentences:
Pencere açılmıyor. = The window is not being opened.
Pencere açılmaz. = The window cannot be opened.
Pencere açılmadı. = The window hasn’t been opened.
Pencere açılmamış. = The window wasn’t opened.
Pencere açılmacak. = The window is not going to be opened.
Pencere açılmasa. = If the window is not opened.

13.4 PASSIVE = REFLEXIVE

At the same time the passive suffix -in is also the suffix for reflexive forms (himself/herself/itself).

Examples:
yıkamak = to wash – yıkanmak = to wash himself
bulmak = to find – bulunmak = to find himself, but same as in passive: to be found
görmek = to seen – görünmek = to see himself (also: to be located)

 

Vocabulary:
dayamak = to base; demek = to say; göndermek = to send; görmek = to see; kir = the dirt, dity; pis = dirty; pislik = the dirt, lousiness, mess; satmak = to sell; silmek = to erase; temizlemek = to clean; yıkamak = to wash

 

 

 

 

Lesson 14

14.1 “WITH” AND “WITHOUT”

“with” and “without” are also formed by suffixes which are added to the substantives.

14.1.1 With – The Suffix “-li”
-li follows the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so it can be modified to
-lı, -li, -lu and -lü

Examples:
Sütlü bir kahve lütfen. = A coffee with milk please.
Proper nouns are separated by an apostroph from the suffix:
Mehmet’le futbol maçına gittim. = I have gone with Mehmet to the football match.
If the word ends on a vowel you insert y:
Kediyle oynuyorum. = I’m playing with the cat.

The suffix -li is related to the word ile which means “with” but also “and”.
Examples:
Leyla ile Mecnun. = Leyla and Mecnun. – or: Leyla with Mecnun.
Mecnun Leyla ile gezmiş. = Mecnun went with Leyla for a walk.
OR: Mecnun Leyla’yla gezmiş.

14.1.2 Without – The Suffix “-siz”
-siz is also determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
-sız, -siz, -suz and -süz

Examples:
Sütsüz bir kahve lütfen. = A coffee without milk please.
Mehmet’siz futbol maçına gittim. = I have gone without Mehmet to the football match.

14.2 “LIKE/AS” AND “FOR”

In Turkish “like/as” and “for” are single unchangeable words.

14.2.1 Like/as – “gibi”
Examples:
Ayı gibi bir adam(dır). = He’s a man like a bear. (literal translation: Bear like a man is.)
Cildi ipek gibi hafif(dir). = His/her skin is as soft as silk. (literal translation: Her/his skin silk like soft is.)

14.2.2 For – “için”
Examples :
Futbol maçı için iki bilet lazım. = I need two tickets for the football match.
Bu Lale için bir hediye(dir). = This is a present for Lale.

14.3 CLIMAX AND SUPERLATIVE

Also for the climax and superlative forms there are single unchangable words.

14.3.1 Degrees of Adjectives and Comparative
daha = more, still

Examples:
İstanbul daha yakın(dır). = Istanbul is nearer. (literal translation: Istanbul more near is.)
Bu masa daha küçük(tür). = This table is smaller. (literal translation: This table more small is.)

For comparing daha is combined with the ablative which occures a comparative:
Lale Deniz’den daha büyük(tür). = Lale is taller than Deniz. (literal translation: From Deniz Lale is more tall.)

daha can also be translated with “still”:
İstanbul’a daha 20 kilometre var. = There are still 20 kms until Istanbul.

14.3.2 Superlative with “en”
en = the most

Examples:
Mehmet en küçük(tür). or: Mehmet en küçüğü. = Mehmet is the smallest.
İstanbul Türkiye’de en büyük şehir(dir). = Istanbul is the biggest town in Turkey.

Vocabulary:
alışveriş = the shopping; ayı = the bear; bilet = the ticket; cilt = the skin; daha = more, still; ders çalışmak = to learn; en = most; futbol = football, soccer; futbol maçı = the football match; gibi = like, as; giriş = the entrance; görmek = to see; hediye = the present; ışımak = to shine; için = for; ile = with, and; ipek = the silk; kilometre = kilometre; kolay = easy; maç = the match; sel = the flood; seyretmek = to watch; şehir = city, town; şeker = the sugar; ücret = the fee, charge, toll; yaşlı = old, aged

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 15

15.1 SUFFIXES FOR ORIGINS AND NATIONALITIES

Origins are also expressed by suffixes, determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
-li, -lı, -lu, -lü

This suffixe are to be added to countries or cities/places.

Examples:
İstanbul – İstanbullu = citizen of Istanbul
Londra – Londralı = citizen of London
Pekin (= Beijing) – Pekinli = citizen of Beijing
Auvusturya (= Austria) – Avusturyalı = the Austrian

Following some more countries with nationalities:
Avustralya = Australia – Avustralyalı = Australian
(Attention, not to mistake with Avusturya = Austria)
Belçika = Belgium – Belçikalı = Belgian
Çin = China – Çinli = Chinese
Hollanda = Holland – Hollandalı = Dutch
İrlanda = Ireland – İrlandalı = Irish
İsveç = Sweden – İsveçli = Swede
İsviçre = Switzerland – İsviçreli = Swiss
Portekiz = Portugal – Portekizli = Portuguese

Moreover there are also fixed terms for nationalities:
Examples:
Alman = German – the country Almanya = Germany
Arap = Arab – the country Arabistan = Arabia
Fransız = French – the country Fransa = France
İngiliz = English – the country İngiltere = England
İskoç = Scottish – the country İskoçya = Scottland
İspanyol = Spanish – the country İspanya = Spain
İtalyan = Italian – the country İtalya = Italy
Japon = Japanese – the country Japonya = Japan
Rus = Russian – the country Rusya = Russia
Türk = Turk – the country Türkiye = Turkey

15.2 LANGUAGES

In Turkish terms for languages always end with
-ce or -ca
after hard consonates with
-çe or -ça
… so it’s determined by the Little Vowel Harmony.

The combination of the suffixes for countries and languages creates the language.

Examples:
Avustralyaca = = Australian language (though this languages might not exist)
Çince = Chinese language
İrlandaca = Irish language
İskoçyaca = Scottisch language
İsveççe = Swedish language
İsviçrece = Swiss language
Portekizce = Portuguese language

Exceptions as not occuring from the countries’ names:
Almanca = German language
Arapça = Arab language
Fransızca = French language
İngilizce = English language
İspanyolca = Spanish language
İtalyanca = Italian language
Japonca = Japanese language
Rusça = Russian language
Türkçe = Turkish language

And last but not least in Turkish there is also the so called Tarzanca. You speak this language when nobody knows what you’re talking about and doesn’t understand you at all. In English it would be translated with “it’s all Greek to me”, but for the Turks it’s the jungle language “Tarzanian”…

IMPORTANT: The suffix for language only refers to a language, it’s not an adjective. For example if you had italian food, this suffix is not appropiate. You would then say: Dün Italyan yemeği yedik. = “Yesterday we ate italian food.”

15.3 PROFESSIONS

Also professions have their own suffixes:
-ci, -cı, -cu or -cü
after hard consonantes
-çi, -çı, -çu or -çü
… and therefore following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY.

Let’s take simple terms like
posta = the post, mail
= the work
yazı = the font
fırın = the oven, the bakery

By adding the above mentioned suffixes you create professions:
postacı = the postman
işçi = the worker
yazıcı = the writer
fırıncı = the baker

But there are also fixed terms like:
kasap = the butcher

15.4 FORMING GENERAL TERMS

With another suffix you can create general terms:
-lik, -lık, -luk, -lük (GREAT VOWEL HARMONY)

Taking the formerly created professions you receive with this suffixes general terms as follows:
postacılık = the postal system
işçilik = the workership
yazıcılık = the business of writing
fırıncılık = the business of baking
birlik = the unity (from bir = one)

These are more abstract terms but you there can also result very concrete terms, like for example:
sebzelik = the vegetable cooler (in the fridgerator)
kitaplık = the bookshelf

Vocabulary:
fırın = the oven, the bakery; = the work; kasap = the butcher; kütüphane = the library; memleket = the country, the homeland; posta = the post, mail; sebze = the vegetable; ülke = the country, the state; yazı = the font, the script

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 16

16.1 “TO BE ABLE” AND “NOT TO BE ABLE”

In order to express the ability to do something you just need another suffix. But in Turkish you have to differ the ability to do something: either you are generally able to do something (skill, knowledge) or just at the moment (situational).

16.1.1 The General Ability

-(y)ebiliyor oder -(y)abiliyor (Little Vowel Harmony).
The y in bracks is only inserted when the word ends on vowel. Then you add a personal pronoun suffix (by the way, the suffix is not changed into “-(y)abılıyor”, though there is a vowel “a” before):

Examples:
yapabiliyorum = I can do
yapabiliyorsun = you can do
yapabiliyor = he/she/it can do
yapabiliyoruz = we can do
yapabiliyorsunuz = you (plural or polite form) can do
yapabiliyorlar = they can do

Maybe you have noticed that the suffix has a similarity to the verb bilmek in 3rd person singular (biliyor = he/she/it knows). A free translation of the suffix could be “knowing to do something” and in general bilmek is translated with “to know, to be able”.

Another example:
gidebiliyorum = I can walk
gidebiliyorsun = you can walk
gidebiliyor = he/she/it can walk
gidebiliyoruz = we can walk
gidebiliyorsunuz = you (plural or polite form) can walk
gidebiliyorlar = they can walk

The verb stem of gitmek is git-, but as you know you have to soften t to d.

As mentioned before this kind of ability expresses a skill or knowldege:
Türkçe konuşabiliyorum. = Ich can speak Turkish./I know Turkish.

16.1.2 Negation of General Ability

Now the suffix has to be modified: remove -bil- and insert an m so you’ve got: -emiyor or -amiyor (Little Vowel Harmony)

yapamıyorum = I can’t do
yapamıyorsun = you can’t do
yapamıyor = he/she/it can’t do
yapamıyoruz = we can’t do
yapamıyorsunuz = you (plural or polite form) can’t do
yapamıyorlar = they can’t do

16.1.3 The Situational Ability

If you are able to do something because you want to do it and no external circumstance prevents it, then you use the suffix:
-(y)ebilir or -(y)ebilir (Little Vowel Harmony)

Example:
yapabilirim = I can do (in this moment)
yapabilirsin = you can do
yapabilir = he/she/it can do
yapabiliriz = we can do
yapabilirsiniz = you (plural or polite form) can do
yapabilirler = they can do

16.1.4 Negation of Situational Ability

To negate the situational ability you need the suffix:
(y)eme(z) or -(y)ama(z) (Little Vowel Harmony).

As usual y occurs at vowel ending and in each 1st person the z at the end is removed (remember the negation of ir-present):

yapamam = I can’t do (in this moment)
yapamazsın = you can’t do
yapamaz = he/she/it can’t do
yapamayız = we can’t do
yapamazsınız = you (plural or polite form) can’t do
yapamazlar = they can’t do

It’s important to note be aware of the nie Nuance: yapamam = “I can’t do” expresses that I cannot do something because I don’t want to or a particular circumstance is preventing me from doing it.

gidemem = I can’t walk
gidemezsin = you can’t walk
gidemez = he/she/it can walk
gidemeyiz = we can’t walk
gidemezsiniz = you (plural or polite form) can’t walk
gidemezler = they can’t walk

Meaning: I can’t or don’t walk to somewhere in this moment.

16.2 “TO BE ABLE TO” = “TO BE ALLOWED TO”

In Turkish you can use the situational ability to express the allowance of doing something, as there is no explicit verb for this (like for example “may” in English).

Examples:
Sana bir şey sorabilir miyim? = May I (Am I allowed to) ask you something?
Girebilirsin. = You may (are allowed) come in.
Bakabiliriz. = We may (are allowed) to watch.

Vocabulary:
bilmek = to know, to be able; bilgi = the knowledge; bilgisayar = the computer (literally: the counter of knowledge); çeviri = the translation; çevirmek = to translate; hesap (or: fatura) = the bill, the invoice, the check; hesaplamak = to calculate; saymak = to count; tercüme = the translation; tercüme etmek = to translate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 17

17.1 PARTICIPLES RELATIVE CLAUSES
Participles are used to put a verb in relation to a substantive. The result is for instance a relative clause, sentences which can be translated with “something that” or “somebody who”.

17.1.1 Participles with “-dik”

This suffix is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY and can therefore be:
-dık, -dik, -duk, -dük

After hard consonantes: -tık, -tik, -tuk, -tük

Adding a personal pronouns suffix softens the k in -dik to ğ, except in 3rd person plural.

Examples:
Kaçırdığım tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train I missed will stop in Ankara.
Kaçırdığın tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train you missed… .
Kaçırdığı tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train he/she/it missed… .
Kaçırdığımız tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train we missed… .
Kaçırdığınız tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train you (plural or polite form) we missed… .
Onların kaçırdıkları tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train they missed… .

The suffix doesn’t express any tense mode which means that the context clarifies in which tense (present or past) the speaker is talking.
gördüğün kadın can therefore be “the woman you see” or “the woman you saw”. It’s up to the context to determine the tense.

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
Kaçırmadığım tren Ankara’da duracak. = The train I didn’t miss… .
görmediğin kadın = the woman you don’t/didn’t see

17.1.2 Participle with “-(y)en/-(y)an”

In Turkish there is no direct translation for the relative clause term “that/who”. This is solved with the suffix
-(y)en/-(y)an (Little Vowel Harmony).

Example:
kalan yemek = the food that remains
gelen adam = the man who comes

At vowel ending insert a y:
bekleyen kız = the girl who waits

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
kalmayan yemek = the food that doesn’t remain
gelmeyen adam = the man who doesn’t come

17.1.3 Participle with “-(y)ecek/-(y)acak”

Another participle is
-(y)ecek/-(y)acak (Little Vowel Harmony)
Actually it’s identical with the future suffix -ecek/-acak, but in this case it’s a participle putting a verb in relation to a substantive, so there is no chance to mistake it.

Examples:
kalacak yemek = the food that will remain
gelecek adam = the man who will come

This vocabulary you know already:
gelecek zaman means “the future”, but literally it’s: “the time that will come”

Negation with -me/ma prior to the participle:
kalmayacak yemek = the food that won’t remain
gelmeyecek adam = the man who won’t come

17.2 THE PARTICIPLE “-(Y)İP”

The suffix -(y)ip or -(y)ıp, -(y)up, -(y)üp (GREAT VOWEL HARMONY) helps forming parallel sentences. It means that you can combine at least two actions following directly after another in the same tense form.

Example:
Eve gidiyorum, çay içiyorum. = I’m going home and drink a tea.

Take the first verb, equip it with a -(y)ip-suffix and you got:
Eve gidip çay içiyorum.

The sentence is now more fluently and you save some letters. The -(y)ip-suffix is always the same independent of the person. It’s the last verb without -(y)ip-suffix determining the person and tense.
Normally you don’t link more then three actions this way.
Dükkana gidip ekmek alıp bana getirirsin. = You go to the shop, buy bread and bring it to me.

At vowel ending insert a y:
Arabaya atlayıp çarşıya gidiyoruz. = We jump into the car and drive to the centre.

Vocabulary:
atlamak = to jump; dükkan = the shop; ekmek = the bread; kaçırmak = to miss; kalmak = to stay; meyva (or meyve) = the fruit; meyva suyu= the fruit juice; portakal = the orange; portakal suyu = the orange juice; tren = the train

 

 

 

 

Lessons’ Overview

Lesson 01

1.1 ALPHABET

1.2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND ARTICLES

1.3 VOWEL HARMONY

1.4 SUFFIXES

1.5 THE CASES

1.6 PHRASE CONSTRUCTION

Lesson 02

2.1 VERBS

2.2 IMPERATIVE

2.3 NEGATION OF IMPERATIVE

Lesson 03

3.1 THE NUMBERS

3.2 THE ORDINALS

3.3 PLURAL

3.4 “THERE IS” AND “THERE IS NOT”

3.5 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

3.6 FORMING QUESTIONS
3.6.1 Questions with “mi”
3.6.2 Other interrogative words

Lesson 04

THE SIX TURKISH CASES

4.1 NOMINATIVE

4.2 ACCUSATIVE
4.2.1 Who or What?
4.2.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.2.3 Vowel Ending
4.2.4 Proper Nouns
4.2.5 Accusative Pronouns

4.3 DATIVE
4.3.1 Whom?… or Whereto?
4.3.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.3.3 Vowel Ending
4.3.4 Proper Nouns
4.3.5 Dative Pronouns

4.4 GENITIVE
4.4.1 Whose?
4.4.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.4.3 Vowel Ending
4.4.4 Proper Nouns
4.4.5 Exceptions in Genitive

4.5 ABLATIVE
4.5.1 From where, from who or from what?
4.5.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.5.3 Proper Nouns

4.6 LOKATIVE
4.6.1 Where?
4.6.2 Ending on Hard Consonantes
4.6.3 Proper Nouns
4.6.4 Remark to the Locative

4.7 REMARK TO THE DIFFERENT CASES IN REFERENCE TO PROPER NOUNS

Lesson 05

“TO BE” OR “NOT TO BE” – AND “TO HAVE” OR “NOT TO HAVE”

5.1 “TO BE”

5.2 THE NEGATION OF “TO BE”

5.3 “TO HAVE” AND “NOT TO HAVE”

Lesson 06

THE PRESENT

6.1 CONTINUOUS PRESENT

6.2 NEGATION OF CONTINUOUS PRESENT

6.3 SIMPLE PRESENT (“AORIST”)

6.4. NEGATION OF SIMPLE PRESENT

Lesson 07

THE PAST

7.1 SIMPLE PAST

7.2 NEGATION OF SIMPLE PAST

7.3 PAST PROGRESSIVE

7.4 NEGATION OF PAST PROGRESSIVE

Lesson 08

8.1 THE FUTURE

8.2 NEGATION OF THE FUTURE

Lesson 09

9.1 UNDEFINED PAST

9.2 NEGATION OF UNDEFINED PAST

Lesson 10

10.1 THE NEED TO DO SOMETHING
10.1.1 “-meli/-malı”
10.1.2 Negation of “-meli/-malı”
10.1.3 “Lazım”
10.1.4 Negation of “lazım”
10.1.5 “Gerekmek”
10.1.6 Negation of “gerekmek”

10.2 “LET’S…” / “SHALL WE…?” – THE OPTATIVE

Lesson 11

11.1 THE CONDITIONAL

11.2 NEGATION OF THE CONDITIONAL

11.3 MODIFICATIONS OF CONDITIONAL

11.4 “IF” = “EĞER”

Lesson 12

TIME DATA

12.1 DAY AND WEEK TIMES

12.2 MONTHS AND SEASONS

12.3 CLOCK TIMES

12.4 DEFINING TIME PERIODS
12.4.1 “Before/ago” and “after/in”
12.4.2 “From… to…”
12.4.3 More Prepositions

Lesson 13

13.1 THE PASSIVE
13.1.2 Vowel Ending
13.1.3 Passive in Different Tenses

13.2 PASSIVE IN COMBINATION WITH PERSONS

13.3 NEGATION OF THE PASSIVE

13.4 PASSIVE = REFLEXIVE

Lesson 14

14.1 “WITH” AND “WITHOUT”
14.1.1 With – The Suffix “-li”
14.1.2 Without – The Suffix “-siz”

14.2 “LIKE/AS” AND “FOR”
14.2.1 Like/as – “gibi”
14.2.2 For – “için”

14.3 CLIMAX AND SUPERLATIVE
14.3.1 Degrees of Adjectives and Comparative
14.3.2 Superlative with “en”

Lesson 15

15.1 SUFFIXES FOR ORIGINS AND NATIONALITIES

15.2 LANGUAGES

15.3 PROFESSIONS

15.4 FORMING GENERAL TERMS

 

Lesson 16

16.1 “TO BE ABLE” AND “NOT TO BE ABLE”
16.1.1 The General Ability
16.1.2 Negation of General Ability
16.1.3 Situational Ability
16.1.4 Negation of Situational Ability

16.2 “TO BEA ABLE” = “TO BE ALLOWED TO”

Lesson 17

17.1 PARTICIPLES RELATIVE CLAUSES
17.1.1 Participles with “-dik”
17.1.2 Participles with “-(y)en/-(y)an”
17.1.3 Participles with “-(y)ecek/-(y)acak”

17.2 THE PARTICIPLE “-(Y)İP”

Additional Lessons:

Survival Kit

Hello, how are you?

Darf ich mich vorstellen?

Gehen wir einkaufen?

Lass uns ausgehen!

Mir geht’s nicht so gut!

Führerschein, Ausweis bitte!

Schilder, Warnungen, Abkürzungen

 

 

 

 

 

 

Driver’s Licence and ID please!

Pasaportunuz lütfen. = Your passport please.
Evraklarını lütfen.
= Your documents please.
Ehliyetiniz ve ruhsatınız lütfen. = Your driver’s licence and registration please.

Gümrüğe tabi eşyanız var mı? = Do you have something to declare?
Bunun içinde ne var? = What is in there?
… açın lütfen? = Please open..
bagajı = the trunk
bavulu = the suitcase

Polis istasyonu nerede? = Where is a police station?

… ihbar etmek istiyorum. = I want to denounce …
(bir) hırsızlık = a thievery
(bir) saldırı = a raid
(bir) kaza = an accident

… çaldılar. = … has been stolen.
bavulu = the suitcase
cüzdani = the wallet
çantası = the bag
fotoğraf makinasını = the photo camera
parayı = the money

Burada ne kadar kalmam lazım? = How long do I have to stay here?
Bir avukatla/konsolosla görüşmek istiyorum. = I want to talk to a lawyer/with the consulate.

 

Let’s Go Shopping!

Para makinası nerede? = Where is a cash machine/ATM?
Döviz bürosu nerede? = Where is a money exchange office?

Nereden … alabilirim? = Where can I buy …?

Sende (sizde) … var mı? = Do you (plural/polite form) have … ?

Bu kaça? / Bu ne kadar? = How much is this?
Bu (çok) pahali. = This is (very) expensive.
Bu (çok) ucuz. = This is (very) cheap.

Bana lazım … = I need …
Bunu istiyorum. = I want this.

Daha ucuz olmaz mı? = Can you reduce it more?

Bunu beğendim. = I like it.
Bunu alıyorum. = I take it.
Prova edebilir miyim? = Can I test it?

Teşekkürler, hepsi bu kadar. = Thanks, that’s all.

Kredi kartı alıyor musun(uz)? = Do you accept (plural/polite form) credit cards?

Different kind of shops:
berber = hairdresser/barber
çiçekçi dükkani = florist
eczane = pharmacy
elektrikçi dükkanı = electric shop
fırın = bakery
gözlükçü = optician
kasap dükkanı = butcher
kunduracı = shoe maker
fotografçi dükkanı = photo shop
mobilyacı = furniture shop
parfümeri = perfumery
plakçi dükkanı = music shop (CDs, cassettes, etc.)
spor eşyaları = sports shop
şekerleme
= candy shop
terzihane = tailoring

 

Signs, Warnings and Abbreviations

COMMON SIGNS:
AÇIK = Open
BAYANLAR
= Ladies
BAYLAR = Gentlemen
CIKIŞ = Exit
DİKKAT = Attention
ERKEKLER
= Men
GİRİŞ = Entrance
İMDAT KAPISI = Emergency Exit
KADINLAR
= Women
KAPALI = Closed
KIRALIK = For Rent
SATILIK = For Sale
SİGARA İÇMEK YASAKTIR = Smoking Prohibited (since May 2008 smoking in public buidlings and during driving a car is not allowed, the penalties are high…)
TEHLİKE FRENİ = Emergency Brake
ÖLÜM TEHLİKESİ = Danger of Life (e.g. electriciy panels, often in combination with a skull and crossbones, who still doesn’t understand got a real problem 😉 )
YASAK BÖLGE = Restricted Area (often military areas; by the way it’s of course not allowed to take pictures of police stations and military facilities, in this matter turkish officials don’t have any sense of humour)

SOME ABBREVIATIONS:
bkz. = bakınız (see)
cad. = cadde (street)
= Milattan önce (before Christ BC)
MS = Milattan sonra (anno Domini AD)
sok. = sokak (alley, small street)
PK = posta kutusu (post box)
PTT = Posta, Telgraf, Telefon (turkish post office)
TBMM = Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (the turkish parliament)
TC = Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Republic of Turkey)
TCDD = Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları (turkish railway company)
THY = Türk Hava Yolları (Turkish Airlines)
TRT = Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu (turkish public television)
vb. = ve başkaları (etc.)
vs. = ve saire (etc.)
YTL = Yeni Türk Lirası (the turkish currency, new Turkish Lira)

 

Important vocabulary and phrases for a basic communication:

Evet. = Yes.

Hayır. = No.

Tamam. = Okay.

Affedersin(iz). = Excuse me (plural/polite form) please.

Pardon. = Sorry.

(Çok) Teşekkür ederim. = Thank you (very much).

Sağ ol(un). = Thank you (plural/polite form).

Bir şey değil. = You’re welcome.

Lütfen. = Please. (when asking for something)
Buyurun. = Here you are. (when passing something)

… istiyorum. = I want…

Anlamıyorum. = I don’t understand.

Tuvalet nerede? = Where is the rest room?

Üzgünüm, Türkçe konuşmuyorum. =I’m sorry, I don’t speak Turkish.

Lütfen beni rahat bırak(ın). = Please leave me alone (plural/polite form).

İmdat! = Help!

turizm bürosu = tourist information
havaalanı or havalimanı = the airport
şehir merkezi = the city centre
dikkat = Attention!
su = water
ekmek = bread
plaj = beach
buz = ice (for cooling, not the ice cream, this would be dondurma)

And finally the mabe most important phrase:
İki bira lütfen. = Two beers please!

 

Let’s Go Out!

GENERAL:
Burada … nerededir?
= Where is here … ?
(bir) bar = a bar
(bir) disko(tek) = a disco
(bir) gazino = kind of open air bar with live music
(bir) gece kulübü = a night club (absolutely not recommendable, except you like the risk and being ripped off…)
(bir) kahve = tea house, only for men
(bir) çay bahçesi = tea garden, mostly open air the house for the whole family
iyi bir restoran = a good restaurant
(bir) sinema = a cinema

Giriş ne kadar? = How much is the entrance fee?

For getting access to a disco usually you pay a fee. But often there is a sign saying:
Damsız girilmez = No entrance without a lady.
which means that a man without being accompanied by a woman will be rejected from entering. So it’s more difficult to impossible to enter with a group of men only. But for women everything is different…
A similar limitation exists for the çay bahçesi: Families are prefered, single persons or couples might be not too much welcome. The purpose of the location determines the kind of guests…

IN THE RESTAURANT:
İki kişilik masayı lütfen.
= A table for two, please.
Bu masa boş mu?
= Is this table free?

Yemek listesini/içecek listesini var mı? = Do you have a menu card/drinks’ list?
Sizde … var mı? = Do you (plural/polite form) have…?
Ne tavsiye ediyorsun(uz)? = What do you (plural/polite form) recommend?

kahvaltı = breakfast
öğle yemeği = lunch
akşam yemeği = dinner

Açıktım. = I’m hungry.
Susadım. = Im thirsty.

sıcak = hot
soğuk = cold

Afiyet olsun. = Enjoy your meal.

Hesap lütfen. = Check please.

IN THE CINEMA:
Bugünkü program ne?
= What is shown today?
Filim ne zaman başlıyor? = When does the movie start?
Öğrenci için indirim var mı? = Is there a discount for pupils/students?

koltuk = parquet
loca = loge/box
yer = seat
sıra = row
boş yer yok = sold out

IN THE CLUB/IN THE BAR…:
Benimle dans eder misin?
= Do you like to dance with me?
Hadi, dans edelim.
= Come on, let’s dance.

Benimle çıkar mısın? = Do you like to go out with me?

… istiyorum. = I want…
alkolsüz içki = alcohol free drink
amer = bitters
bira = beer
cin = gin
elma suyu = apple juice
fiçi birası = draft/draught beer
maden suyu = mineral water
meyve suyu = fruit juice
portakal suyu = orange juice
rakı = turkish anise liquor (also called aslan sütü = lion’s milk)
şarap = wine
şampanya = champagne
su = water
viski = whiskey
votka = vodka

Şerefe! = Cheers!
Sarhoşum. = I’m drunk.

 

Hello, How Are You?

How to greet:
Günaydın. = Good morning.
Merhaba. /İyi günler. = Good day.
İyi akşamlar. = Good evening. (also when you leave)
İyi geceler. = Good night.

Hoş geldiniz. = Welcome. (literally: “you come with pleasure”)
Hoş bulduk. = literally: “it’s pleasure we found”, which is the answer to “hoş geldiniz”

Selamun aleyküm. = from Arabic: May peace with you!
(Ve) Aleyküm selam. = Reply: (And) May peace with you!
This kind of greeting often is used when for instance greeting a group of men. It’s not usual to greet women this way.

More colloquial ways of greeting are for example:
Selam.
= Hello.
Merhaba çocuklar.
= Hey guys.

TO SAY GOOD BYE:
Allaha ısmarladık. = Goodbye. (says the one who leaves, literally: “to God we have been ordered”)
Güle güle.
= Goodbye. (replies the one who remains, literally: “with a smile”)
Görüşmek üzere. = Goodbye. (litarally: To see you again)

Colloquial forms:
Hadi, bana eyvallah.
= Well, bye from my part.
Hadi, ben kaçıyorum. = Okay, I’m out of here.
hadi
is a short form of haydi which means actually something like “come on”, “let’s go”…

HOW ARE YOU’S:
Nasılsın(ız).
= How are you (plural/polite form)?
İyi, teşekkür ederim. Ya sen (siz)? = Thank you, I’m fine. And you (plural/polite form)?
Instead of teşekkür ederim you can also say sağ ol(un).

Other expressions of “how are you”:
Ne var ne yok? = What’ up?
Ne haber? = What’s new?
Possible replies:
İyilik. = literally: The goodness. (this are for example the news)
Şöyle böyle. = Regular.

OTHER EXPRESSIONS:
Görüşürüz. = See you. (when saying goodbye)
Bol şanslar. = Good luck.
İyi yolculuklar. = Have a nice trip.

 

 

May I Introduce Myself?

NAMES:
Adım… / İsmim… = My name is…

İsmin(iz) ne? / Adın(ız) ne? = What’s your (plural/polite form) name?

Bu… = This is…
… arkadaşım. = … my friend.
… kız arkadaşım. = … my girlfriend.
… nişanlım. = my fiance.
… eşim. = my husband/wife.

Turks usually greet with shaking hands. Persons who know each other very well also kiss on their cheeks right and left – between men, too!
Men and women kiss mostly when they know each other very well, for example relatives or good friends. Therefore you should be more cautious spending kisses in the man-woman-greeting if you don’t know the person very well. Women on the other side very often greet each other with kisses even when they are introduced each other first time, for instance when being introduced to the family, but not at formal occasions like business dinners, meetings or similar…

Memnun oldum. = Nice to meet you. / I’m pleased.

Görüşten tanışıyoruz, değil mi? = We know each other from seeing, don’t we?

Ner(e)de oturuyorsun(uz)? = Where do you (plural/polite form) live?

Bur(a)da mı oturuyorsun(uz). = Do you (plural/polite form) live here?

AGE:
Kaç yaşındasın(ız)? = How old are you (plural/polite form)?
Ben 29 yaşındayım. = I’m 29 years old.
Ne zaman doğdun(uz)? = When have you (plural/polite form) been born?

PROFESSIONS:
Mesleğin(iz) ne? = What’s your (plural/polite form) profession.
Ne çalışıyorsun(uz)? = What do you (plural/polite form) work?
Nerde ış yapıyorsun(uz)? = Where do you (plural/polite form) work?

Mesleğim… = My job is…

A choice of professions:
aşçı = chef
boyacı = painter
çilingir = locksmith
doktor = doctor

duvarcı = mason
elektrikçi = electrician
emekli = retiree
ev kadını = housewife
işçi = worker
esnaf= craftsman
marangoz = carpenter
memur = clerk, public official
mühendis = engineer
öğretmen = teacher
oto tamircisi = motor mechanic
sanatçı = artist
tesisatçı = installer
tüccar = merchant

Ne öğrenimi yapıyorsun(uz). or Ne okuyorsun(uz)? = What are you (plural/polite form) studying?

… okuyorum. = I study…

A choice of common studies:
biyoloji = biology
elektroteknik = electrotechnology
fızık = physics
hukuk = law
İngiliz filolojisi = anglistics
işletmecilik = economy
kimya = chemistry
makinecilik = engineering
mimarlık = architecture
müzik = music
psikoloji = psychology
sanat = arts
tarih = history
tıp = medicine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning Tips

Usually the best way to learn a language is to practise in the country where it’s spoken. But usually you don’t go and live in Turkey just because you’re interested in learning Turkish… or do you?

Following we would like to pass you some useful information how you can practise and improve what you’ve learning on our website. Of course these hints are useful for every new language to learn:

1) Read turkish newspapers! Online it’s very easy, for instance:

SABAH… One of the biggest turkish daily newspapers. There is also a European edition.

CNN TÜRK… The turkish version of the US news channel.

HÜRRIYET… What to say? Typical yellow press, lurid. But anyway also Hürriyet “speaks” Turkish – so why not…

Reading newspapers is the best way to get used to the commonly used language and terms. Besides you inform yourself about current events.

2) Almost everything is possible online. Also having turkish pen/email-pals. So find some and write in Turkish with them.

3) Maybe you have already turkish friends, colleagues or neighbours. So just talk Turkish to them and be curious for their reaction. Maybe they correct you here and there, but that’s great: this way you have a direct feedback on what you learn.
Also your kebab or turkish vegetables provider will be happy having a chat in his language. But take care that the one you speak to is a Turk in deed. Otherwise you just receive odd looks.

4) If you’re one of the lucky people who often travel and your journey carries you to Turkey then don’t be shy. Talk Turkish to everyone. You won’t be laughed at! It’s the best way to practise (next to reading) and the people will show their most positive reaction. Maybe you also find interesting new friends, too.

 

 

 

 

 

 

I Don’t Feel Well!

Lütfen bir doktor getir(in). = Please call (plural/polite form) a doctor.

En yakın eczane nerede? = Where is the nearest pharmacy?
Nerede doktor var? = Where is a doctor?
Nerede hastane var?
= Where is a hospital?

cildiyeci = dermatologist
çoçuk doktoru = pediatrist
göz doktoru
= eye specialist
kadın doktoru = gynaecologist
operatör
= surgeon
ürolog
= urologist
bekleme odası
= waiting room

Hastayım. = I’m ill.
Burası acıyor. = Here it hurts.
Üşüttum. = I got a cold.
Fenalaşiyorum.
= I feel queasy.
Midem bozuldu. = I’ve got an upset stomach.
İstifrağ ettim. = I vomitted.
Ateşim var.
= I’ve got fever.
Şeker hastasıyım. = I’m diabetic.

allerji
= allergy
astım = asthma
ateş = fever
bahar nezlesi = hay fever
boğaz ağrısı = sore throat
bronşit = bronchitis
grip
= flu
güneş çarpmısı
= sunstroke
güneş yanığı
= sunburn
ishal
= diarrhea
iltihap = immflamation
kramp = cramp
mide bulantısı = queasiness
migren = migraine
öğürtü = nausea
öksürük = cough
soğuk algınlığı = cold
(alçak/yüksek) tansiyon = low/high blood pressure
yaralanma = injury
zatürre = pneumonia

(Burasi) aciyor mu? = Does it hurt (here)?
Lütfen ağzinizi açin.
= Please open your mouth.
Ne yediniz? = What did you eat?
Ciddi bir şey değil. = It’s nothing serious.

aspirin = headache pill
enjeksiyon = injection
göz damlası = eye drops
hap = pill
haşarat tozu = antrycide
merhem = salve
mide hapı = antacide
uyku hapı = sleeping pill

yemekten önce = before meal
yemekten sonra
= after meal
günde üç kere = three times daily
aç karına = on an empty stomach

 

Roxolana: a Sulaeman Otoman Empire Harem

Roxolana: “The Greatest Empresse of the East”

One of the most legendary women of early modern history, known

in Turkey as Hurrem Sultan and in Europe as Roxolana, has always been and still remains a controversial figure. While controversies

surrounded other powerful and famous women of her time — such as Catherine de’ Medici, Queen Margot, or Queen Elizabeth I — Roxolana’s precipitous career from a harem slave to the queen of the Ottoman Empire made her particularly fascinating, yet vulnerable to the judgment of many a historian and writer. Kidnapped from the Ukraine and sold into the Ottoman imperial harem in the early sixteenth century, Roxolana quickly became the favorite concubine (hasseki ) of Sultan Suleiman I, the Magnificent (1520 –1566), and later, his beloved wife, the powerful sultana. In the course of their four-decade-long romance until her death in 1558, Roxolana reigned supreme not only in Suleiman’s heart, but also in his court, as his chief political advisor. The former slave exerted immense influence over imperial affairs and left an indelible mark on both Ottoman history and European imagination.

Various theories and interpretations have been offered throughout the ages to account for her long-term grip over Suleiman: her beauty, her joyous spirit and graciousness, her charming smile and infectious laughter, her witty and quick mind, her ruthless pragmatism and political genius, her manipulative and vile disposition, her musical talents, her use of sorcery and love potions, among others. The main problem with such interpretations is that they overstress Roxolana’s psychological traits and regard her actions as being outside the social and historical context in which she lived. Another problem with most representations of Roxolana’s life is that little factual information is known about her in the first place, as the sultan’s harem was inaccessible to both the Ottomans and foreign visitors. The primary Ottoman sources on Hurrem — such as her correspondence with Suleiman, the harem salary records,1 Suleiman’s diaries and his poetic love letters to Hurrem,2 as well as Suleiman’s and Roxolana’s letters to King Sigizmund II August3 — provide an authentic glimpse into her actions and psychology. However, these documents did not become known to the world at large until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when the dark image of Roxolana had been already formed.

All other depictions of Hurrem-Roxolana, starting with comments by sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Ottoman historians as well as by European diplomats, observers, and travelers, are highly derivative and speculative in nature. Because none of these people were permitted into the inner circle of Suleiman’s harem, which was surrounded by multiple walls, they largely relied on the testimony of the servants or courtiers or on the popular gossip circulating around Istanbul. Even the reports of the Venetian ambassadors (baili ) at Suleiman’s court, the most extensive and objective first-hand Western source on Roxolana to date, were often filled with the authors’ own interpretations of the harem rumors.4 Most other sixteenth-century Western sources on Roxolana, which are considered highly authoritative today — such as The Turkish Letters of Ogier de Busbecq, the Emissary of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I at the Porte between 1554 and 1562; the account of the murder of Prince Mustapha by Nicholas de Moffan; the historical chronicles on Turkey by Paolo Giovio; and the travel narrative by Luidgi Bassano5 — were derived from hearsay. For the most part, they demonize Roxolana as a ruthless schemer who constantly poisoned Suleiman’s mind with her machinations, replicating the Ottoman belief that she used sorcery to entice him. For instance, English historian Richard Knolles, who called Roxolana “the greatest empresse of the East,” portrayed her as a malicious, wicked, and scheming woman who fully controlled Suleiman’s mind.6 This negative Western response to Roxolana was the result of numerous causes: the uncritical replication and proliferation of the Ottoman public’s negative attitudes to Hurrem by early modern European observers; early modern Europeans’ resentment of successful renegades as morally perverted people and their general misconceptions about the Ottoman slave system; and lastly, the early modern West’s own fear of female authority.

While in the late seventeenth century Roxolana’s image in Europe changed for the better, perhaps due to the general decrease of the Ottoman threat and the subsequent change in the attitudes toward the Turks,7 the tradition of demonizing Roxolana continued, almost by force of habit, in subsequent centuries. The publication of numerous Ottoman histories and relevant documents — such as Hammer’s Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches (1827–1835); Ranke’s Fürsten und Völker von Südeuropas (1827); Zinkeisen’s Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches in Europa (1840 –1863);8 and Alberi’s edition of the Venetian reports (1840 –1855) — in the nineteenth century rekindled the West’s interest in Turkish history, but it also revived both the Ottoman public’s negative image of Hurrem and the early modern West’s stereotype of Roxolana as a schemer. These solid historical studies contributed, directly or indirectly, to further propagation of the old-age image of Roxolana in the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.9 One can still find abundant bias against Roxolana in modern Western and Turkish history and fiction.10 Yet, a number of serious historical studies have demonstrated Western misconceptions about the Ottoman harem and specifically about Roxolana’s actions.11

This article attempts to rectify the negative, one-sided, and (one might say) “patriarchal” view of Roxolana that dominated for centuries. In contrast to accusations of her as a witch and an unscrupulous social climber, this paper highlights Roxolana’s strengths — her intelligence, education, willpower, and other talents — that enabled her not just to survive in the crowded world of the Ottoman imperial harem, but to come out triumphant. Furthermore, the paper will turn to the Eastern European (mostly Polish and Ukrainian) perspective on Roxolana, which defends her actions as necessary for her survival in the Ottoman slavery system. While there is no single systematic, non-fictional overview or analysis of Roxolana’s life in English, apart from a couple of fictional works centering on Roxolana12 or individual chapters and pages about her in history books,13 such works exist in Polish and Ukrainian, as well as in other European languages: e.g., by Julian Niemcewicz, Panteleimon Kulish, Szymon Askenazy, Agathangel Krymsky, Mikhail Hrushevsky, Volodymyr Hrabovetsky, Yaroslav Kis’, Olena Apanovich,

Irena Knysh, and others.14 In addition, the early modern chronicles of Marcin Bielski, Maciej Stryjkowski, Marcin Broniowski, Bernard Wapowski, and Mikhalon Lituan provide perspectives on Ottoman slavery and on Poland and Ukraine that have not been closely examined in Western scholarship.15 Yet, such Eastern European sources present a refreshing antidote to the old stereotypes on these issues. If anything, looking at Roxolana from a number of cultural perspectives enables us to form a more balanced view of this legendary woman.

Roxolana’s emergence in the Ottoman imperial harem has been compared to the projectory of a meteorite or a bright comet in the night sky. She probably entered the harem around fifteen years of age, some time between

1517 and 1520, but certainly before Suleiman became sultan in 1520. Her rise from harem servant to Suleiman’s hasseki must have been rather rapid, for after giving birth to her first son Mehmed in 1521, she bore the Sultan four more sons — Abdullah (b. 1522), Selim (b. 1524), Bayazid (b. 1525), and Jihangir (b. 1531, a hunchback) — and a daughter Mihrimah (b. 1522).16 That Roxolana was allowed to give birth to more than one son was a stark violation of the old royal harem principle, “one concubine mother — one son,” which was designed to prevent both the mother’s influence over the sultan and the feuds of the blood brothers for the throne.17 The violation of this principle signaled to the outside world the emergence of a powerful female in Suleiman’s court.

Foreign diplomatic correspondence between the 1520s and 1550s was filled with the awareness of this powerful female presence behind the thick walls of the Sultan’s harem. European observers and historians referred to her as “Roxolana,” “Rosselane,” “Roxa,” or “Rossa,” as she was believed to be of Russian descent. Mikhail Litvin (Mikhalon Lituan), a Lithuanian ambassador to the Crimea in the mid-sixteenth century, wrote in his 1550 chronicle: “. . . the beloved wife of the Turkish emperor, mother of his eldest son and heir, was some time ago kidnapped from our land.”18 Navagero wrote of her as “[donna] . . . di nazione russa”; and Trevisano called her a “Sultana, ch’è di Russia.”19 The belief that Roxolana was of Russian rather than Ukrainian descent may have resulted from the eventual misinterpretation of the words Roxolana and Rossa. In early modern Europe, the word Roxolania was used to refer to the province of Ruthenia (or Rutenia) in the Western Ukraine, which was at different times known under the names of Red Rus”, Galicia, or Podolia (that is, eastern Podolia that was under Polish control at the time), while present-day Russia was called Muscovy, or Muscovy Rus”, or the Duchy of Muscovy. In antiquity, the word Roxolani denoted both a nomadic Sarmatian tribe and a settlement on the Dniester River (presently in the Odessa region in the Ukraine).20

As Samuel Twardowski, member of the Polish Embassy to the Ottoman court in the years 1621–1622 maintained, Turks told him that Roxolana was the daughter of an Orthodox priest from Rohatyn, a small town in Podolia not

far from Lviv.21 The old folk song from the region of Bukovina that tells the

story of a beautiful young Nastusen’ka (diminutive from Anastasia), who was kidnapped by the Tatars from Rohatyn and sold into the Turkish

harem, confirms this information.22 According to the old Ukrainian tradition,

Roksolana’s name was Anastasia Lisowska, daughter of Gavriil and Leksandra Lisowski,23 although many argue that this name is fictive and was invented in the nineteenth century.24

While Ukrainian and Polish legends and sources extoll Roxolana’s beauty that conquered the powerful Sultan, Venetian reports maintain that she was not particularly beautiful but rather small, graceful, elegant, and modest.25 Yet her radiant smile and playful temperament made her irresistibly charming and won her the name of “Hurrem” (“Joyful” or “Laughing One”). She was known for her singing and musical ability, as well as for her skillful embroidery.26 But most important, it is Roxolana’s great intelligence and willpower that gave her an edge over other women in the harem. As all contemporary European observers testified, the Sultan was completely smitten with his new concubine.

She quickly ousted the mother of the Sultan’s first-born son, the beautiful Circassian Gulbehar (Mahidevran, in other sources),27 from the position of favorite concubine. Suleiman’s love for Hurrem found powerful expression in his poetic letters to her.28 When both Navagero and Trevisano wrote in their 1553 and 1554 reports to Venice that she was “much loved by her master” (“tanto amata da sua maestà”),29 Roxolana was already in her fifties, long past her prime. After her death in April 1558, Suleiman remained inconsolable for a long time. She was the greatest love of his life, his soulmate and lawful wife, and a woman of extraordinary character.30

Suleiman’s great love for Roxolana was manifest in his exceptional treatment of his hasseki. To her benefit, the Sultan broke a series of very important traditions of the imperial harem. In 1533 or 1534 (the exact date is unknown), Suleiman married Hurrem in a magnificent formal ceremony, violating a 300-year-old custom of the Ottoman house according to which sultans were not to marry their concubines.31 Never before was a former slave elevated to the status of the sultan’s lawful spouse.32 Moreover, upon marrying hasseki Hurrem, the Sultan became practically monogamous, which was unheard of in Ottoman history. As Trevisano wrote in 1554, once Suleiman had known Roxolana, “not only did he want to have her as a legitimate wife and hold her as such in his seraglio, but he did not even want to know any other woman: something that had never been done by any of his predecessors, for the Turks are accustomed to take various women in order to have children by them, or for carnal pleasure.”33

Roxolana became the first woman to remain in the Sultan’s court for the duration of her life. In the Ottoman royal family tradition, a sultan’s concubine was to remain in the harem only until her son came of age (around 16 or 17), after which he would be sent away from the capital to govern a faraway province, and his mother would follow him.34 She would return to Istanbul only in the capacity of valide sultan (mother of the reigning sultan). In defiance of this age-old custom, Hurrem stayed behind in the harem with her hunchback son Jihangir, even after her three other sons went to govern the empire’s remote provinces.35 Moreover, she moved out of the harem located in the Old Palace (Eskiserai ) to Suleiman’s quarters located in the New Palace (Topkapi ) after a fire destroyed the old palace.

Obviously, the Ottoman public did not appreciate Suleiman’s total devotion to one woman and the ensuing radical changes in the harem hierarchy. As Bassano wrote about the public’s reaction to Hurrem, “the Janissaries and the entire court hate her and her children likewise, but because the Sultan loves her, no one dares to speak”; and “every one speak[s] ill of her and of her children, and well of the first-born and his mother, who has been repudiated.”36 The public attributed Hurrem’s power over Suleiman to witchcraft, often calling her ziadi, or “witch.” This negative image of Roxolana was then transferred to Europe by Western diplomats and travelers and was added to the West’s own fear of female authority. Furthermore, the execution of Prince Mustapha in 1553, which many believed was instigated by Roxolana and her son-in-law Rustem Pasha, made her especially unpopular both in Turkey and in the West and sealed her negative image. The death of Mustapha was greatly lamented by the Janissaries and the court, where he was held in high regard and favored as the next sultan. The news that the Sultan executed his own son and heir sent shock waves in early modern Europe: it was perceived as a stark example of Asian atrocity.

As Pierce persuasively argues, the roots of the Ottoman public’s dislike of Hurrem lay in Suleiman’s breaking three important harem traditions for Hurrem: the concubine status of royal mothers, the reproductive principle

of “one concubine mother — one son,” and the presence of a prince’s mother at her son’s provincial post.37 Traditionally, the two roles of the sultan’s concubines — the sultan’s favorite (a sexual role) and that of mother of the prince (a post-sexual role) — were separated in the imperial harem, the separation made at the moment when the woman left the harem to follow her adult son to a province. In Hurrem, however, “these two functions were collapsed for the first time in the career of one woman,” as she was “caught between two conflicting loyalties: mother to the prince, and wife to the sultan.”38 As a result, the Ottomans could not come to terms with Hurrem’s ambiguous status in the harem.

When critics accuse Roxolana of manipulating and plotting against her harem rivals — Gulbahar, Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha, Prince Mustapha, and Grand Vizier Ahmed Pasha — they tend to overlook the fact that she had to fight for her own survival and the survival of her children in the very competitive world of the imperial harem, which was populated by hundreds of beautiful women and able men and ruled by the fratricide law. Hurrem was thus unjustly and harshly judged by her contemporaries for surviving and doing so brilliantly. Her rise from slave to sultana was not only the result of Suleiman’s love and benevolence, but also the result of her own intelligence, effort, and extraordinary political skill. Hurrem knew the Sultan’s nature very well39 and skillfully used that knowledge to her advantage. On one occasion, Gulbehar, mother of the first-born Mustafa, overcome by jealousy, called Hurrem “sold meat” (“carne venduta”) and scratched Hurrem’s face very badly. When the envoy came to summon Hurrem to Suleiman’s quarters for the night, she refused to go on the grounds that she did not dare offend the Sultan’s eyesight with her disfigured looks. Suleiman insisted and upon seeing Hurrem’s bruised face, sent Gulbahar away to join her son Mustafa in the province of Magnesia.40 Hurrem thus won a long-time battle with her archrival by turning the unfavorable circumstance to her advantage. This episode is often cited as an example of Roxolana’s manipulative nature, but it can also be seen as an example of her political genius.

Hurrem’s power in the Sultan’s court grew stronger with every passing year. As Navagero wrote in 1553, “there has not been in the Ottoman house a lady that has had more authority.”41 Her authority showed not only in her firm grip over Suleiman’s heart but also in her ability to compete with the male rivals in Suleiman’s court, and to be a skillful sovereign and ruler. She was a keen advisor to Suleiman in political matters, particularly when he was absent from Istanbul on his numerous military campaigns. She regularly sent letters to the Sultan, in which, in addition to expressing her great love and longing for him, she also informed him of the situation in the capital and of any events that required his immediate attention or action.42 In being thus vigilant, she protected Suleiman’s interests and contributed to the success of his reign. There is no doubt that Suleiman trusted her more than he did his male advisors.

Unlike other harem concubines before her, who had never risen above the level of harem rivalry, Roxolana had political ambition and was, it seemed, determined to achieve as much power and independence as a woman possibly could within the Ottoman slave system. She dared to have a voice in the government. She played an important role in Suleiman’s diplomatic dealings and correspondence, often acting on the Sultan’s behalf, when an assurance of his peaceful intentions and an exchange of gifts were necessary.43 She also influenced the Sultan’s diplomatic relations with other sovereigns and foreign embassies (see below).

As a public figure, Hurrem became known for her grand-scale building projects, which manifested her high status in the Ottoman dynastic family. Traditionally, “the endowments of royal concubine mothers were confined to provincial cities, while the sultan alone was responsible for the most splendid projects in the capital of Istanbul.”44 However, Hurrem earned the privilege to build religious and charitable buildings in Istanbul and other important cities of the empire. Hurrem’s endowment (Külliye of hasseki Hurrem) in Istanbul, built in the Aksaray district called Avret Pazari (or Women’s Bazaar; later named Hasseki ), contained a mosque, medrese, imaret, elementary school, hospital, and fountain. It was the first complex constructed in Istanbul by Sinan in his new position as the chief royal architect. The fact that it was the third largest building in the capital, after the complexes of Mehmed II (Fatih) and Suleyman (Süleymanie mosque), testifies to Hurrem’s great status.45 She also built mosque complexes in Adrianopol and Ankara.46 Her other charitable building projects included the Jerusalem foundation (called Hasseki Sultan), with a hospice and a soup kitchen for pilgrims and the homeless; a soup kitchen in Mekka (imaret Hasseki Hurrem); a public kitchen in Istanbul (in Avret Pazari); and two large public baths in Istanbul (in the Jewish and Aya Sôfya quarters, respectively).47

Despite her unpopularity with the Ottomans, Hurrem must have projected a rather impressive image as a public figure. In his works Sehname-i Al-i Osman (1593) and Sehname-i Humayun (1596), Ottoman historian Taliki-zade el-Fenari presented a very flattering portrait of Hurrem as a woman known for “her numerous charitable endowments, her patronage of learning and respect for men of religion, and her acquisition of rare and beautiful objects.”48

It is as a powerful ruler and a person of extraordinary talent and intelligence that Roxolana is celebrated in Polish and Ukrainian history. Roxolana’s exalted status in these cultures is closely connected with the historical events of great significance: namely, the large-scale Tatar-Turkish slave trade that had been devastating these regions from the thirteenth century through most of the seventeenth century. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Ottoman slave trade escalated to an unprecedented degree. Various sixteenth-century Polish chroniclers, such as Marcin Bielski, Joachim Bielski, Maciej Stryjkowski, Marcin Broniowski, Bernard Wapowski, and Joachim Jerlicz, wrote of the staggering statistics of these raids. Some of the most devastating raids happened in 1498 –1500, when Tatars ravaged Galicia, taking 150,000 captives49; in 1509, when they plundered Lviv and burned down Rohatyn50; and in 1516, when 30,000 Tatar raiders captured 60 thousand Ukrainian people.51 During such raids, Tatars laid waste to villages and towns, killing everyone who resisted them and taking captive not only men and women, but also children and livestock.52 In the second half of the sixteenth century, 150,000 –200,000 Podolians were taken into captivity. The devastating Tatar raids continued on a full-scale during the seventeenth century.53 Overall, between the fifteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century, about 2.5 million Ukrainians were kidnapped and sold into slavery.54 The Ukrainian population was so decimated during that time that the “country did not recover from it for many generations.”55 Contemporary sources also recorded the Tatars’ horrible treatment of Ukrainian captives, while the latter were being transported to the slave markets of the Crimea and Asia Minor: . . . it is a sight that could touch even the cruellest of hearts, when a man is separated from his wife, a mother from her daughter, without any hope of ever being reunited, in the deplorable captivity of pagan Mahumetans, who will subject them to a myriad indignities. Their [Tatars’ ] brutality makes them commit the filthiest of deeds, such as raping maidens, violating married women in presence of their fathers and husbands, and even circumcising infants in front of the latter in order to turn them to Mahomet. In the end, even the most callous of hearts would tremble among the cries and laments, tears and moans of these unfortunate Ruthenians. For while this people sings and howls in tears, these miserable folks are dispersed in different directions: some to Constantinople, some to the Crimea, others to Anatolia, etc. This is, in a few words, how Tatars take captive as many as 50 thousand souls in less than two weeks, and how they treat their captives upon dividing them amongst themselves and then sell them as they please when they return to their lands.56

In this context, Ukrainians viewed Roxolana’s destiny as a triumph of human will and intelligence, for she was directly connected with the ongoing tragedy, not only because she had been captured and sold at the slave markets, but also because she reached a position in which she could relieve the sorry lot of her captured compatriots. It is believed that during her tenure at Suleiman’s court, Roxolana facilitated the Porte’s friendly relations with Poland, who had dominion of the western Ukraine at the time. The Polish- Ottoman truces of 1525 and 1528 and the “eternal peace” treaties of 1533 and

1553 are frequently attributed to her influence.57 As Polish and Ukrainian lands

were devastated by constant Tatar and Turkish slave raids in which thousands of people were kidnapped and sold into slavery, maintaining friendly relations with the Ottomans was crucially important for the Polish kings Sigismund I and his son, Sigismund II August. The treaties allowed Poland significant leverage in negotiating the ransom and return of the captured.

It is not known exactly what part Roxolana played in preventing the ongoing slave trade in her native land and in negotiating the release of Polish and Ukrainian captives. Neither this information nor her influence on Suleiman would have been recorded in state documents. Yet, Piotr Opalinski, Polish Ambassador to Suleiman’s court in 1533, confirmed that through Roxolana’s pleading, the Sultan forbade the Crimean Khan to bother Polish lands.58

Although some historians argue that the reasons Poland was able to obtain those truces with the Ottomans were strictly political and had more to do with the common Polish and Ottoman anti-Hapsburg politics, the fact that Suleiman twice granted “eternal peace” to a non-tributary Christian neighbor was in itself amazing, as it was a radical departure from the Islamic principles governing their relations with “infidels.” It clearly pointed to Poland’s privileged status in Ottoman diplomacy.59 Indeed, as von Hammer wrote, Polish embassies to Suleiman’s court were more frequent than any other European embassies, and one of the most important issues on their agenda was the return of Polish captives to their native land: From no other European court there appeared as many embassies as from Poland. For four years in a row came Polish ambassadors — and in the mentioned year [1553] even twice — to the Porte, among whom were Nikolai Bohousz, Andrzej Burzki, Stanislaw Tenezynski, Andrej Bzicki, and Yazlowiecki, and in the following year Piotr Pilecki and Nikolai Brzozowski. The topics of their negotiations were the Turkish raids in Poland, the compensations of Queen Isabella, the return of the captives, and the renewal of friendship.60

Altogether, about fifty Polish embassies were sent to the Porte in the coure of the sixteenth century.61 Analysis of the ambassadorial instructions and diplomatic correspondence between the Porte and the Polish Crown during the sixteenth century reveals that there were a great many Polish captives in Turkey, and that the question of their liberation was frequently raised.62

Two extant letters of Roxolana to Sigismund August reveal a close connection between the sovereigns of the two powers as well as her desire to assure favorable disposition of Turkey toward Poland.63 In her first short letter to Sigismund II, Roxolana expresses her highest joy and congratulations to the new King on the occasion of his ascension to the Polish throne after the death of his father Sigismund I in 1548.64 She also pleads with the King to trust her envoy Hassan Aga (her close servant who was by some accounts a convert to Islam of Ukrainian descent) who took another message from her by word of mouth.65 In her second letter to Sigismund August, written in response to his letter, Roxolana expresses in superlative terms her joy at hearing that the King is in good health and that he sends assurances of his sincere friendliness and attachment towards Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.66 She also relates here Sultan Suleiman’s great joy at receiving good news from the Polish sovereign (“that made him so joyous that I cannot express”), and she quotes the Sultan as saying: “with the old King we were like brothers, and if it pleases the All- Merciful God, with this King we will be as Father and Son.”67 Next, she assures the King of her willingness to defend his interests before the Sultan: “I will be very interested in this and will speak ten times more for the good and in favor of Your Majesty.”68 With this letter, Roxolana sent Sigismund II the gift of two pairs of linen shirts and pants, some belts, six handkerchiefs, and a hand-towel, with a promise to send a special linen robe in the future.

There are reasons to believe that these two letters were more than just diplomatic gestures, and that Suleiman’s references to brotherly or fatherly feelings were not a mere tribute to political expediency. The letters also suggest Roxolana’s strong desire to establish personal contact with the King. “Perhaps,” writes one Ukrainian author, “they express her concern about her land, which was under Polish Kings, and her desire to help it out in any possible way?”69 In his 1551 letter to Sigismund II concerning the embassy of Piotr Opalinski, Suleiman wrote that the Ambassador had seen “Your sister, and my Wife.”70 Whether this phrase refers to a warm friendship between the Polish King and Roxolana, or whether it suggests a closer relation,71 the degree of their intimacy definitely points to a special link between the two states at the time.

While there is no known recorded evidence of Roxolana’s help to her captive compatriots, Ukrainian popular memory provides its own time- honored testimony. One early modern Ukrainian folk song (duma) depicts the story of Marusia of Bohuslav (where “Bohuslav” is both a name of a Ukrainian town and a word meaning “praising God”), daughter of an Orthodox priest who ended up in a Turkish Pasha’s harem. Although Marusia feels cursed for having accepted the hateful “Turkish luxury,” on a bright Holy Saturday she frees 700 Ukrainian Cossacks from her master’s prison:

 

Thus on the Day of the Resurrection The Turkish lord sought the mosque’s arcade But into the hand of the captive maid The keys of the dungeon dark he laid. Then the captive maid was true To the deed she had promised to do; To the dungeon walls she came And unlocked the door of the same; Thus with the pasha’s key She set the captives free.72

Because Marusia’s life story is so similar to Roxolana’s, some consider this duma to be about Roxolana.73 It projects the image of Roxolana as a helper and an avenger for the suffering of her people. Ukrainians also take pride in Roxolana’s tenacity and independence, which they trace to cultural traditions in the Kiev Rus’ of the eleventh-twelfth centuries. They maintain that Roxolana’s independence and free spirit were instilled in her during her childhood years in Podolia, where she received her primary education. Suppressed on all sides by Polish and Lithuanian colonists and by Tatar and Turkish hordes, Ukrainians nevertheless saw themselves

as inheritors of the great traditions of the Kiev Rus’, where women enjoyed relative equality with men with regard to legal rights. On the other hand, Roxolana’s personality is sometimes connected with a new type of a Ukrainian woman that came to the fore during the Cossack liberation movement (the late sixteenth-seventeenth centuries) — a Cossack woman who defended her home and land against foreign invaders along with Cossack men.74

Roxolana’s actions — such as her insistence on marriage with Suleiman and his de facto monogamy, her earning the highest hasseki salary (2,000 aspers/ day), her tremendous legal dowry and wealth (5,000 ducats; multiple real estate), her ability to consolidate power in the harem through a network of personal relationships, her relative freedom of movement, and her running the affairs of the harem in the same manner in which only valideh sultans did — are thus viewed in the context of the old Ukrainian tradition of female independence and self-reliance, and as the behaviors of a free-spirited Cossack woman.

Even if this image of Roxolana is highly romanticized, one has to acknowledge her diverse talents and extraordinary intelligence, fortitude, and willpower — the gifts with which she “bewitched” Suleiman and the rest of the world. In the afterword to his novel, Roksolana (1979), Ukrainian writer Pavlo Zahrebel’ny defends Roxolana’s actions as her right to the “pursuit of happiness,” the pursuit of her unique individuality, which is the ultimate measure and purpose of human life.75 Roxolana had to deal with the vicissitudes of foreign captivity and compete with innumerable people under the very cruel circumstances. She was able not only to survive but also to triumph over those circumstances. Sometimes, says Zahrebel’ny, a person’s life is so hard that he or she has little time to reflect on abstract principles and is instead forced to solve real-life problems very promptly, when it is only “either” or “or,” only “to be” or “not to be.” Such was Roxolana’s life, and she won victory over a slave’s lot with the power of her considerable will and intelligence.76

(Galina Yermolenko, DeSales University Center Valley, Pennsylvania)

Endnotes

Unless otherwise indicated, all translations are belongs to thewriter.

  1. See Leslie Pierce, The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), which is based primarily on the analysis of the Suleiman-Hurrem’s correspondence and of the harem’s privy registers, contained in the Topkapi museum in Istanbul.
  2. For the English translations of Suleiman’s poetry, see vol. III of E.J.W. Gibb, A History of Turkish Poetry (vols. I –VI; London, 1900 –1907); and Talat S. Halman, Suleyman the Magnificent Poet (Istanbul: Dost, 1987).
  3. See Szymon Askenazy, “Listy Roxolany,” Kwartalnik Historyczny X (1896):

113 –17.

  1. Most pertinent to my topic are the reports of three Venetian baili at Suleiman’s court: Pietro Bragadino (1526), Bernardo Navagero (1553), and Domenico Trevisano (1554). All three reports were published by Eugenio Alberi in Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vols. I–III (Firenze, 1840 –1855).
  2. See Luigi Bassano da Zara, I costumi et i modi particolari de la vita de Turchi (Roma, 1545); Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq, Augerii Gislenii Turcicae legationes epistolae quatuor (Paris, 1589), as well as the English editions used in this article, The Four Epistles of A.G. Busbequius, Concerning his Embassy into Turkey (London: F. Taylor and F. Wayt, 1694); and The Turkish Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Imperial Ambassador at Constantinople, 1554 –1562 (Trans. E.S. Forster; Oxford: Clarendon, 1968; 1927); Paolo Giovio, Turcicarum rerum commentarius (Paris, 1531) and Historiarum sui tempores (1552); and Nicholas de Moffan, Soltani Solymanni horrendum facinus in proprium fil(Basle, 1555), which was published in English translation in William Paynter’s Second Tome of the Palace of Pleasure (London, 1567).
  1. Generall Historie of the Turkes (London, 1603), 759.
  2. Jean Marmontel’s novella “Solyman II”, from his Contes moraux (Paris, 1764), perhaps best illustrates this “new” European attitude to Roxolana. Here the image of Roxolana as a charming, witty, and independent European woman replaces, if only for a brief period of time, the old image of her as an unscrupulous schemer.
  3. See Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches (vols. I –X; Pest, 1827–1835), particularly vol. III, 227, 269 ff.; Leopold Ranke, Fürsten und Völker von Südeuropas im sechzehnten und siebzehnten Jahrhundert (vols. 1– 4; Berlin, 1827), particularly vol. 1, 35 ff.; and Johann Zinkeisen, Geschichte der europäischen Staaten: Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches in Europa (vols. I–VII; Hamburg/Gotha: Perthes, 1840 –1863), particularly vol. III, 23 ff. Ranke’s study appeared in an English translation by W.K. Kelly, The Ottoman and the Spanish Empires in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (London, 1843). Hammer’s study, which was based on an extensive, thirty-year- long research of the Ottoman archives, and which also exists in a French translation (Histoire de l ”Empire ottoman; vols. I–IX; Paris, 1835–1843), was and still is very influential and widely used by historians. It was never translated into English; however, Edward S. Creasy used it abundantly in his popular History of the Ottoman Turks (London, 1878).
  1. See Nicolae Jorga, Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches (vols. 1–21; Gotha: Perthes, 1908), particularly vol. 3; and Fairfax Downey, The Grande Turk: Suleyman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottomans (New York: Minton, Balch, & Co., 1929).
  2. See, for instance, Johannes Tralow, Roxelane: Roman einer Kaiserin (Zürich: Scientia, 1944); Harold Lamb, Suleiman the Magnificent Sultan of the East (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1951); and Antony Bridge, Suleiman the Magnificent (New York: Granada,1983).
  1. See Albert H. Lybyer, The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1913); Leslie Pierce, The Imperial Harem; and Godfrey Goodwin, The Private World of Ottoman Women (London: Saqi Books, 1997). Pierce’s book, which views Hurrem’s actions as directly connected to her position in the hierarchy of the Ottoman slave family, remains the best and most sustained defense of Roxolana so far.
  2. See the novels by Aileen Crawley, The Bride of Suleiman (New York: St. Martin’s, 1981) and The Shadow of God (New York: St. Martin’s, 1983); and by Colin Falconer, The Sultan’s Harem (New York: Crown, 2004).
  1. See Downey, The Grande Turk: Suleyman the Magnificent, Sultan of the Ottomans; Lamb, Suleiman the Magnificent Sultan of the East ; Bridge, Suleiman the Magnificent ; and Andre Clot, Suleiman the Magnificent: The Man, His Life, His Epoch (London: Saqi Books, 1992; trans. from French, Paris, 1989).
  2. See Julian Niemcewicz, Zbiór pami´tników historycznych o dawnej Polszcze (vol. 2; Lipsk, 1839); Vladimir Antonovich and Mikhail Dragomanov, Istoricheskiia pesni malorusskago naroda (vol. 1; Kiev, 1874); Panteleimon Kulish, Istoriia vossojedineniia Rusi (vols. 1–3; Moscow, 1877); Agathangel Krymsky, Istoriia Turechyny (Kyiv: Akademia Nauk, 1924); Mieczyslaw Opalek, Roksolana (Lwów, 1928); Michael Hrushevsky, A History of Ukraine (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941); Olena Apanovich, “Marusia Boguslavka — istorychna postat’,” Nauka i zhyttia 15.3–5 (1965): 9–13, 27–31, 13–15; Irena Knysh, “Imperators’ka kariera Anastazii Lisovs’koi: u 405-ti rokovyni smerti slavetnoii Roksoliany,” Novy Shliakh (1966): 36 –52; May 29, 2003; <www.geocities.com/nspilka/library/ roksolana.html>; Yuri Kolisnichenko, “Sultansha z Rohatyna,” Vitchyzna 34 (May 1966): 213 –17; Yaroslav Kis’, “Lehendy i fakty pro Roksolanu,” Arkhiv Ukrajiny 6 (1970): 25 – 31; Yevhen Kramar, “Slavetna ukrainka v sultans’komu dvori,” Rohatyns”ka zemlia: zbirnyk istorychno-memuarnykh, etnografichnykh i pobutovykh materialiv (ed. Uliana Liubovich; vol. 1; New York: Central Committee “Rohatynshchyna,” 1989; 106 –18); Volodymyr Hrabovetsky, Roksolana v istorii (Ivano-Frankivs’k, 1993); and Dariusz Ko¬ odziejczyk, Ottoman-Polish Diplomatic Relations (15th –18th cc.) (Boston: Brill, 2000). For other European sources on Roxolana, see Radovan Samardzic’, Sulejman i Rokselana (Beograd: Jugoslavijapublik, 1987); Michel Sokolnicki, La Sultane Roxelane (Ankara, 1959); and Willy Sperco, Roxelane: Épouse de Süleyman le Magnifique (Paris: Nouvelles editions Latines, 1972).
  1. See Michalon Lituan, Michalonis Lituani de moribus tartarorum, lituanorum et moscorum (Basle, 1550); Marcin Bielski, Kronika Polska Marcina Bielskiego, 1576 (vol. 2; Warszawa, 1856); Maciej Stryjkowski, Kronika Polska, Litewska, ¸módzka i wszystkiéj Rusi Macieja Stryjkowskiego, 1582 (Warszawa, 1846); Marcin Broniowski, Stephani I. Poloniae Regis nominee bis in Tartariam legati, Descriptio Tartariae, 1595 (Vindobonae, 1746 –1748); and Bernard Wapowski, Kroniki Polski B. Wapowskiego (Warszawa, 1874).
  1. Sources disagree widely on how many sons and daughters, and in what succession, Suleiman had by Roxolana. Many early modern sources mention three sons (Selim, Bayazid, and Gehangir) and one daughter, Mihrimah. Yet, some sources mention four sons (Mehmed/Mahomet, Selim, Bayazid, and Gehangir), and some other state that Mahomet, who died in 1543 of small pox, was another concubine’s son. In his 1526 report, Bragadino mentioned Selim as Roxolana’s first son (b. 1521), Marat as second son (b. 1523), and Mamet as third son (b. 1525). See Alberi, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. III (Firenze, 1855), 102. Trevisano, however, mentions Mehemet as Suleiman’s first son, and Selim, as his second son. See Relazioni, Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 116. Hammer lists Mehmed, Jahanguir, Selim, Bayazid, and Mihrimah as Hurrem’s children. See Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches, vol. III, 792. Abdullah, who died three years after his birth in 1522, is seldom listed among Roxolana’s children. I follow Pierce’s list, which is based on Hurrem’s habit of mentioning all her children’s names in her letters to Suleiman. See The Imperial Harem, 60.
  1. For more detail on the “one mother — one son” principle governing the Ottoman imperial harem’s reproductive politics, see Pierce, The Imperial Harem, 58 –59.
  2. I refer here to the Russian translation of two chapters from Litvin’s chronicle: “Otryvky o nravakh tatar, litovtsev i moskvityan. Izvlechenie iz sochinenia Mikhaila Litvina, 1550,” (Trans. K. Melnik; Memuary otnosiashchiesia k istorii iuzhnoi Rusi; ed. Vladimir Antonovich; vol. I; Kiev: Korchak-Novitski, 1890), 19. For other references to Roxolana’s Ukrainian origin in Eastern European scholarship, see Kulish, Istoriia vossojedineniia Rusi, vol. 3, 343 – 44; V.D. Smirnov, Krymskoe khanstvo pod verkhovenstvom Otomanskoi Porty do nachala XVIII v. (St.-Petersburg, 1887), 425; and Krymsky, Istoriia Turechyny, 184.
  1. Alberi, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 74; 115.
  1. See Krymsky, Istoriia Turechyny, 185 – 86 n. 2; and “Roksolana,” Radians”ka entsyklopedia istorii Ukrainy, vol. IV (Kyiv, 1972), 7.
  2. Ye j0 siostr0 Soliman królewsk0 nazywa. Pod¬ego z Rochatyna popa by¬a cór0, Oddana niewolnic0 do szaraju, ktor0 Z urody jej Soliman tak podoba¬ sobie,¸e nad wszystkie so¬tany przeniós¬ j0 w ozdobie. See “PrzewaΩna legacya i.o. Krysztofa Zbaraskiego . . . do Najpot´yniejszego so¬tana cesarza tureckiego Mustafy, w roku 1621 . . . Przez Samuela z Skrzypnej Twardowskiego,” Poezye Samuela z Skrzypny Twardowskiego (Kraków: K.J. Turowski, 1861), 169. Krymsky argues that count Rzewusky used this information and passed it onto Hammer. See Istoriia Turechyny, 184 n. 2.
  1. V Rohatyni, na zarinku, Tam tatary vkraly divku, Vkraly divku Nastusen’ku, Chornobryvu, moloden’ku, Taj zabraly v Turetchynu, Taj prodaly do haremu. See Mykhailo Orlich, Roksoliana, tsarivna soniachna Opillia (Lviv: Triada plius, 2002), 58 – 59.
  1. See Orlich, Roksoliana, tsarivna soniachna Opillia, 23.
  2. See Kis’, “Lehendy i fakty pro Roksolanu,” 26; and Volodymyr Hrabovetsky, Narysy istorii Prykarpattia (Ivano-Frankivs’k, 1993), 132– 33.
  1. Cf. Bragadino: “giovane ma non bella, ma aggraziata e menuetta (piccina)”; Navagero: “modesta.” See Alberi, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. III (Firenze, 1855), 102; Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 74.
  2. See Askenazy, “Listy Roxolany,” 113.
  3. Many sources called Gulbehar a “Circassian”: e.g., “la circassa” (Navagero); “una donna circassa” (Trevisano). See Alberi, Relazione degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 74, 75, 77; and Ser. III, vol. III (Firenze, 1855), 115.
  1. Translated by Talat S. Halman, in Suleyman the Magnificent Poet.
  2. Alberi, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 74; 115.
  1. Cf. the words of Antonio Barbarigo written of Roxolana in 1558 (the year of her death): “. . . era questa donna libera padrona della vita di questo Signore, dal quale era sommamente amata.” See Alberi, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. III (Firenze, 1855), 148.
  2. For an early modern account of the wedding festivities, discovered as a journal entry in the Genoese Bank of St. George in Constantinople, see Barnette Miller, Beyond the Sublime Porte: The grand Seraglio of Stambul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931), 93 – 94.
  1. The Turkish Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, 28 –29.
  2. “. . . dopo che la conobbe, che non solamente ha voluto averla per legittima moglie e tenerla per tale nel suo serraglio, ma, siccome è la fama, non ha voluto dappoi conoscere altra donna: cosa non piu fatta da alcuno delli suoi predecessori, essendo i Turchi soliti di pigliare ora una, or un’ altra donna, si per aver figliuoli, come per lor piaceri carnali.” See Alberi, Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 115–16.
  1. Here is how Busbecq explains, in his second Turkish letter, why adult sons did not live with the sultan: “. . . now-a-days, ‘tis the Custom of the Turkish Emperors, never to permit any one of their Sons, when once they are grown up, to set their Foot within the gates of Constantinople, (whilst they are alive) for fear they should ingratiate themselves with the Soldiery, and so set up for themselves.” See The Four Epistles of A.G. Busbequius, Concerning his Embassy into Turkey (London: F. Taylor and F. Wayt, 1694), 131.
  2. Pierce, The Imperial Harem, 90.
  3. 36.   Bassano, I costumi et i modi particolari de la vita de Turchi (Roma, 1545), chap.
  4. Pierce, The Imperial Harem, 58.
  5. Pierce, 89 – 90. Pierce further explains the ambiguity of Hurrem’s legal status: “For the sultan’s favorite, to foster the son’s success was to undermine the husband’s authority.”  See The Imperial Harem, 90. The public thus could not tell whether Hurrem was loyal to her husband or to the princes, as the system did not allow a compromise in this regard.
  1. Cf. Navagero: “. . . molto bene conosce la natura del Gran-Signore.” See Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 74 –75.
  2. See Navagero’s 1553 report in Relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 75; 77.
  3. “. . . non fu mai nella casa ottomana alcuna donna che avesse maggior autorità.” See Relazione degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, Ser. III, vol. I (Firenze, 1840), 74 –75.
  4. Cf. Pierce’s comment on the significance of Hurrem’s letters to the sultan during his Safavid campaign, “With the grand vizier and other important statesmen accompanying the sultan on campaign, Hurrem undoubtedly performed a crucial role through her vigilance over affairs in the capital. That the sultan asked her to forward letters to other members of the family suggests that she also functioned as a secure communications link.” See The Imperial Harem, 65.
  5. As Pierce put it, Suleiman “purposely spoke through Hurrem when peace was his aim.” The Imperial Harem, 221.
  6. See Leslie Pierce, “Gender and Sexual Propriety in Ottoman Royal Women’s Patronage,” Women, Patronage, and Self-Representation in Islamic Societies (Ed. D. Fairchild Ruggles; New York: State University of New York Press, 2000, 53 – 68), 56.
  7. 45.   See Appendix I, “Vakfiye of Hurrem Sultan,” in Esin Atil, The Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent (Washington: National Gallery of Art; New York: Abrams, 1987),
  8. See St. H. Stephan, “An Endowment Deed of Khâsseki Sultân, Dated the 24th May 1552,” The Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine 10 (1944: 170 – 94): 172– 73; and Ihan AkΠit, The Mystery of the Ottoman Harem (Istanbul: AkΠit, 2000), 98.
  1. Stephan, “An Endowment Deed of Khâsseki Sultân, Dated the 24th May 1552,” 172–73.
  1. Quoted in Christine Woodhead, “ ‘The present terrour of the world’? Contemporary

Views of the Ottoman Empire c. 1600,” History 72 (Feb. 1987: 20 – 37), 28.

  1. Hrushevsky, A History of Ukraine, 333.
  2. See Kronika Polska Marcina Bielskiego, 1576 (vol. II; Warszawa, 1856), 952; and Kronika Polska, Litewska, ¸módzka i wszystkiéj Rusi Macieja Stryjkowskiego, 1582 (vol. II; Warszawa, 1846), 355.
  3. See Kronika Polska, Litewska, ¸módzka i wszystkiéj Rusi Macieja Stryjkowskiego, vol. II, 388.
  1. See Broniowski, Stephani I. Poloniae . . . Descriptio Tartariae ; here references are made to the Russian translation of Broniowski’s work, “Opisanie Kryma,” in Zapiski Odesskago obschestva istorii i drevnostej (Odessa, 1867; 333 – 67), vol. VI, 362 ff. See also Guillaume Beauplan, Description d ”Vkranie, qvi sont plvsievrs Prouinces du Royaume de Pologne (Roüen, 1660), 42 ff.
  2. See, for instance, Olena Apanovich, “Marusia Boguslavka — istorychna postat’,” Nauka i zhyttia 15.3 (1965): 11.
  1. See Yaroslav Dashkevich, “Iasyr z Podillia v druhij polovyni 16-ho viku,” Bibliohrafiia staroi Ukrainy, 1240 –1800 (Kyiv, 2000), vol. 4, 29.
  1. Hrushevsky, A History of Ukraine, 151.
  2. “. . . c’est vne chose qui toucheroit le coeur des plus inhumains, de voir lors la separation d’vn mary d’auec sa femme, d’vne mere d’auec sa fille, sans esperance de se pouuoir iamais reuoir, entrans dans l’esclauage deplorable de payens Mahumetans, qui leur font milles indignitez. Leur brutalité leur faisant cómmettre vne infinité de saletez, comme de violer les filles, forcer les femmes presence des peres & de leur maris: mesme circoncir leurs enfans deuant eux pour ettre prefentez à Mahomet. En fin le coeur des plus insensibles tremiroit d’entendre les cris & les chants, parmy les pleurs & gemissemens de ces malheureux Rus. Car cette nation chante & hurle en pleurant, ces miserables sont donc separez par cy par là, les vns pour Constantinople, les autres pour le Crime, & d’autre pour la Natolie, &c. voila en peu de mots, comme les Tartares font des leuées & des rafles de peuples au nombre de plus de 50. mil ames, en moins de deux semaines, & comme ils traictent leurs esclaues, après auoir fait leurs partages, puis les vendent selon que bon leur semble lors qu’ils sont retournez en leurs pays.” See Beauplan, Description d Vkranie, 46.
  1. Niemcewicz, Zbiór pami´tników historycznych o dawnej Polszcze, 336.
  2. Opa≈ek, Roksolana, 13.
  3. Ko≈odziejczyk, Ottoman-Polish Diplomatic Relations, 15th –18th cc., 117–18.
  4. “Von keinem europäischen Hofe erschienen an der Pforte damahls häufigere Gesandtschaften, als von Pohlen. Vier Jahre hintereinander kamen Pohlische Gesandte, in dem letzten deren gar zwey, an die Pforte, nach dem oben erwahnten Nicolaus Bohousz, Andreas Burzki, Stanislaus Tenezynski, Andreas Bzicki, Yazlowiecki, und im folgenden Jahre Peter Pilecki und Nikolaus Brzozowski. Der Gengenstand ihrer Verhandlungen waren die Einfälle der Türken in Pohlen, die Entschändigung der Koniginn Isabella, die Zurückstellung der Gefangenen, die Erneuerung der Freundschaft.” See Hammer, Geschichte des Osmanishen Reiches, vol. III, 315. See also Hammer’s references to other Polish embassies to the Porte on pp. 258, 289, and 727.
  5. L. Bazylev, “Pol’sko-turetskie diplomaticheskie sviazi v XVI veke,” Rossia, Pol sha, i Prichernomorie v XV–XVIII vv. (ed. B.A. Rybakov; Moskva: Nauka, 1979, 12–27), 18.
  1. Wladyslaw Henzel, “Problema jasyria v pol’sko-turetskikh otnosheniakh XVI–XVII vv.,” Rossia, Pol sha, i Prichernomorie v XV–XVIII vv. (Moskva: Nauka, 1979, 147–58), 152.
  1. Roxolana’s letters to Sigizmund II (August) were discovered in 1896 in a French translation (done by Ant. Crutty on October 25, 1789). See Askenazy, “Listy Roxolany,” 113 –
  2. They are presently held in AGAD (Archiwum G≈ównym Akt Dawnych) in Warsaw: AKW, Dz. tur., k. 68, t. 110, no. 218. See Zygmunt Abrahamowicz, Katalog dokumentów tureckich. Dokumenty do dziejów Polski i krajów ociennych w latach 1455 –1672 (Warsaw, 1959). See also references to these letters in Ko≈odziejczyk, Ottoman-Polish Diplomatic Relations, 15th –18th cc., 119 n. 12; and Jan Reychman, Historia Turcji (Wroc≈aw, 1973), 87 n. 16.
  1. Askenazy suggests 1550 as an approximate date these letters were written. See “Listy Roxolany,” 115.
  1. Below is the complete text of Roxolana’s first letter to Sigismund I: “Nous faisons savoir à la sublime connoissance de S. M. le Roi, qu’ayant entendu votre avènement à la Royauté après la mort de Votre Père, Nous Vous félicitons, prenant Dieu le Très Haut à témoin, combien de joie et plaisir notre coeur ressentit à cette agréable nouvelle. C ’est donc la volonté de Dieu à laquelle Vous devez Vous résigner et conformer à Sa prédestination et décrets. C’est pourqoi Nous Vous avons écrit cette présente lettre amicale et envoyée aux pieds du trône de V. M. par notre serviteur Hassan Aga, lequel en arrivant avec l’aide de Dieu, Nous Vous prions instamment à tout ce qu’il répresentera de bouche à V. M. de lui prêter pleine foi et croyance, comme venant directement de notre part. Du reste je ne sais pas quoi Vous dire de plus qui soit un sécret pour V. M. La très humble servante Hasséki Sultane.” See Askenazy, “Listy Roxolany,” 115.
  2. “. . . le désir d’amitié que Vous témoignez à Votre sincère amie, comme aussi les témoignages de Votre sincère amitié et attachment envers S. M. l’Empereur.” See “Listy Roxolany,” 116.
  1. “. . . avec le vieux Roi Nous étions comme deux Frères, et s”il plaît à Dieu le Tres Miséricordieux, avec ce Roi nous serons comme Père et Fils.” Italics original. See “Listy Roxolany,” 116.

 

 

 

 

  1. “. . . je m’intéresserai et parlerai dix fois de plus en bien et en faveur de V. M., m’engageant en cela à la reconnoisance de monâme.” See “Listy Roxolany,” 116.
  2. “Mozhe, tse turbota pro ridnu zemliu, iaka bula pid panuvanniam pol’skoho korolia, i namahannia sultanshy dopomohty jij riznymy sposobamy?” See Kis’, “Lehendy i fakty pro Roksolanu,” 30.
  3. See “PrzewaΩna legacya . . . Przez Samuela z Skrzypnej Twardowskiego,” 169; and

Niemcewicz, Zbiór pami´tników historycznych o dawnej Polszcze, 237. For more on Suleiman’s 1551 letter to Sigismund II, see Ananjasz Zaj0czkowski, “List turecki Sulejmana I do Zygmunta Augusta w ówczesnej transkrypcji i t¬umaczeniu polskiem z r. 1551,” Rocznik Orjentalistyczny XII (1936): 91–118.

  1. According to persistent rumors, Roxolana was an illegitimate daughter of King Sigismund I and Leksandra. The story goes that before she was married to Gavriil Lisowski, Roxolana’s mother, Leksandra, from the town of Kniazh, served at the King’s court and had a romantic affair with him. It was also rumored that Roxolana, or Nastia Lisowska, was called “princess” in her childhood. See, for instance, Orlich, Roksoliana, tsarivna soniachna Opillia, 23. This rumor may have been an attempt on the part of the population to account for Roxolana’s “innate” royalty.
  2. The English translation of this duma appears in C.H. Andrusyshen and Watson

Kirkconnell, The Ukrainian Poets, 1189 –1962 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963),

25.

  1. See Orlich, Roksoliana, tsarivna soniachna Opillia, 27.
  2. See L. I. Haidaj, Istoria Ukrainy v osobakh, terminakh, nazvakh i poniattiakh (vid naidavnishykh chasiv do Khmel ”nycchyny) (Lutsk: Vezha, 2000), 166 – 67.
  3. Zahrebel’ny quotes Goethe’s words in this regard: “Volk und Knecht und

Überwinder/Sie gesteht zu jeder Zeit / Höchtes Glück der Erdenkinder/ Sei nur

Persönlichkeit.” See Roksolana (Kyiv: Tast-M, 2000), 629 – 30.

  1. Zahrebel’ny, Roksolana, 630.

 

 

 

 

Contoh PK GT (Gagasan Tertulis) lolos PIMNAS

bank-air-sebagai-solusi-mengatasi-kelangkaan-air-bersih

brain-washing-motivasi

independent-energy-company

jembatan-apung-gunung-jati

piperantha

puskesmas-stelsel-berdinding-botol

surabaya-fish-app

PSYCOTEST Bank Mandiri

Tulisan ini adalah untuk mengisi pertanyaan tentang Psycotest Bank Mandiri yang visitor bilang nggak ada di web saya. Walau ini catatan 3 tahun silam,  tapi masih valid. 

Lebih memilih TEST BANK MANDIRI dari pada Presentasi MAWAPRES (Mahasiswa Berprestasi) « Life Balance

Senin, 21 April 2014
Selamat hari Kartini, selamat hari perempuan….
Sebelumnya saya berterimakasih kepada badan saya yang telah meluangkan waktu sedemikian baiknya sehingga saya dapat berada diruangan tadi. Tanpa manipulasi ataupun tekanan dari pihak manapun, saya mengikuti PSYCOTEST BANK MANDIRI di GRHA Aba Ta berlokasi didepan Dinas Kehutanan Provinsi. Tadinya saya fikir test ini akan memakan waktu kira-kira hanya dua jam saja. Akan tetap saya salah. Saya harus duduk didalam ruangan ber-AC dari jam 8 pagi hingga 14.30 siang. Dengan flu yang melanda dan meler yang jatuh hingga ke kertas so’al saya meneruskan jawaban hingga ketitik darah penghabisan. Saat jam 11 benar-benar tiba, saya mulai berfikir, apa benar hari ini saya membuang kesempatan menjadi MAWAPRES? Pasalnya hari ini adalah jadwal presentasi Karya Tulis Ilmiah dari kampus dan saya sudah menyusun makalash sedemikian rupa hingga saya tidak tidur sehari semalam demi mengerjakan KTI itu. Jika tidak sibuk baca kembali perjuangan saya membuat KTI itu. Haaahaaa….. belum lagi jika menengok pada perjuangan untuk mendaftar… menambah kepusingan yang melanda.
Baiklah…. Didalam ruangan itu, ada 29 orang dengan saya yang melamar di Bank Mandiri sebagai Teller. Ini adalah hari kedua test. Sebelum kami, ada 30 orang lain yang test pada hari sabtu kemarin. Sebelumnya saya dijadwalkan untuk test pada hari sabtu akan tetapi dipindah ke hari senin. Ini adalah hal yang saya takuti sebelumnya bahwa test Bank Mandiri akan berbenturan waktunya dengan presentasi KTI MAWAPRES. Dan benar saja. Sebenarnya lagi Presentasi KTI Mawapres diadakan pada hari Sabtu kemarin akan tetapi diundur ke hari senain karena alasan teman-teman belum siap pada hari itu. Menyebalkannya dikala saya sudah siap, mereka tidak siap. Dan dengan berbesar hati pertanyaannya adlaah benarkah saya harus mengalah? …… Allah Maha Mengetahui apa yang harus saya lakukan.
Ditengah kebimbangan, saya meneruskan menjawab rangkaian2 test yangmulai terasa sulit itu. Kalau pada psycotest biasa-test itu terasa mudah, kali ini tidak mudah sama sekali. Mungkin ada seribu soal yang harus saya jawab didalamnya. Saya akan menjelaskan kronologisnya.
Pertama, mengisi biodata diri. Banyak hal yang dipertanyakan disana.
Kedua Test … saya lupa namanya akan tetapi lebih mirip dengan psycotest SNMPTN
Ini test jumlahnya ratusan dan menghabiskan waktu banyak. Akan tetapi disarankan mengerjakan dengan cepat. Jika ada soal sulit lebih baik dilompati karena keterbatasan waktu yang diberikan
Ketiga entah ini benar ketiga atau bukan. Namanya Tes KRAELIN yaitu mejumlahkan angka-angka dari bawah ke atas. Pada bagian ini saya harus dengan cepat menjumlahkan angka yang jumlahnya wooowww banyak banget.
Selanjutnya Warteg Test yang berisi 8 kolom dengan masing2 setiap symbol dimana setiap symbol harus dilanjutkan gambarnya. Lebih tepatnya menyelesaikan symbol menjadi gambar bebas.
Terus hm…. Diberi 3 lembar kertas HVS kosong untuk digambar menjadi: 1, gambar manusia yang diberi keterangan usia, aktifitas apa yagn sedang dilakukan, 2. Pohon berkambium, 3. Rumah, pohon dan orang (part 3 ini harus posisi kertas Lanndscape).
Selanjutnya Edward Personal Prefference schedule: sekala kecenderungan keperibadian yang berisi 225 soal A & B.
Sekedar pemberitahuan: lebih baik mengerjakan soal dengan cepat jangan berfikir terlalu lama karena tester menghitung waktu dan kita tidak bisa membohongi terter haha….
…….
Zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
MENGHABISKAN WAKTU 6 jam mengerjakan semua test tersebut yang berisi kurang lebih 1000 soal.
Jam setengah tiga berakhir dan saya langsung menuju kekampus mencari Pak Ismail. Ternyata bapak tidak ada. Entah apa yang harus saya lakukan, saya meng sms bapak, begini buyinya:
Sy: Aslm,…. Bapak saya Fera Mahasiswi yang megikuti Mawapres. Pask sebelumnya saya meminta maaf yang sebesar-besarnya karena tidak dapat tampil presentasi hari ini karena ada test dari bank Mandiri dari jam 8 pagi sampai jam 2 siang. Jika Bapak tidak keberatan, bolehkah saya presentasi KTI menyusul? Jika ia, kapan Bpak ada waktu? Trimakasih sebelumnya Pak, wassalam”
Bapak: waalaikumussalam,
Cuma sehari waktunya yang ditetapkan oleh fakultas dik, tahun depan ikut lagi, atau bisa ikut KTI dan PKM.
Saya:tahun ini saya lolos 2 PKMK pak dan ini kesempatan terakhir saya di mawapres.saya sudah semester 8.waktu itu saya peserta tambahan. Batas pendaftaran terakhir hari sabtu tapi universitas memprebolehkan saya mendaftar hari senin. Kalau bapak tidak keberatan, saya minta izin presentasi besok pagi pak dengan prsetujuan fakultas atau universits. Trimakasih sebelumnya pak.
Saya: pak mohon bantuan bapak sekali ini saja.
Saya menunggu balasan tapi Pak Ismail tidak membalasnya. Hingga saya merasa perjuangan saya untuk MAWAPRES UNRAM harus berakhir sampai disini. Pada intinya saya mengerti bahwa prestasi itu bukanlah hal yang dibanggakan akan tetapi saya akan bangga jika orang-orang disekeliling saya bahagia melihat keberhasilan saya. Setiap manusia itu berprestasi tanpa harus ada tittle mawapres yang melekat dilengannya. Dan menyerah itu bukan berarti kalah karena saya sudah berusaha maksimal. 

Why Jakarta is Very Hot like in Hell since January 1 2017?

​Why Jakarta is very hot like in hell since 1 January? 

I’m gonna try to answer it since many people describe something beyond geography. 

Jakarta in Perihelion makes it burning like hell from 1-4 January 2017. (But the climax will be on January 4th).

It just a moment when the earth is in the closest poin to the sun.  It just about two weeks after the December solstice.  Distance from the sun’s center to earth’s centre will be 147.100.998 km or 91.404.322 mill. 

While when it in aphelion (the eart is reaching the farthest point to the sun in orbit,  or after 2 weeks after June solstice)  and the distance will be 152.092.504 km. 

When does perihelion happens each year? The answer is vary. Each year commonly occour in 3 or 4 January.  The burning sensation we may feel in a couple of days not only in that date. Jakarta really feels like hell or I can say the sun just like few meters above our head and I can’t wear kinda long shirt. Some people I met were talking about this burning sensation last nite and they said that the air con didn’t work at all then I thought I should stay home at least till perihelion go may be till 4…

Equinox,  Solstice,  Seasons,  Perihelion and Aphelion they just like our friend on earth. So just take it easy when you get the sensation that you never like. Ok. This is January 3 and tomorrow will be the aphelion point. We may feel burning sensation more than today. Be prepare. 

Psalm 34 (02012016)

​Psalm: 34. 4. I sought the Lord, and he answered me; he delivered me from all my fears. 5. Those who look to him are radiant; their faces are never covered with shame. 6. This poor man called, and the Lord heard him; he saved him out of all his troubles. 7. The angel of the Lord encamps around those who fear him, and he delivers them. 8. Taste and see that the Lord is good; blessed is the one who takes refuge in him. 9. Fear the Lord, you his holy people, for those who fear him lack nothing. 10. The lions may grow weak and hungry, but those who seek the Lord lack no good thing. 11. Come, my children, listen to me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord. 12. Whoever of you loves life and desires to see many good days, 13. keep your tongue from evil and your lips from telling lies. 14. Turn from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue it. 15. The eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are attentive to their cry; 16. but the face of the Lord is against those who do evil, to blot out their name from the earth. 17. The righteous cry out, and the Lord hears them; he delivers them from all their troubles. 18. The Lord is close to the brokenhearted and saves those who are crushed in spirit. 19. The righteous person may have many troubles, but the Lord delivers him from them all; 20. he protects all his bones, not one of them will be broken. 21. Evil will slay the wicked; the foes of the righteous will be condemned. 22. The Lord will rescue his servants; no one who takes refuge in him will be condemned. –