ASSIGNMENT OF CAR
IMPROVING STUDENTS READING COMPREHENSION USING MIND MAPPING
AT THE THIRD YEAR STUDENTS OF SMPN 1 KURIPAN
CLASS IX E ACADEMIC YEAR 2013-2014
BY : Fera Komalasari
Class : VII- A
Student number: E1D 010 002
1.1 Background of Study
Language plays an important role for daily communication. Since English has become an International language in the world, the students should master it in order to survive in the global era. There are four skills of English that is reading, writing, listening and writing. Reading is one of the four skills which is difficult to be mastered. Reading is not a passive activity for learners as what people imagine. Reading is a difficult one even though it’s not a productive skill such as speaking and writing.
Recent reseach on reading has shown that reading is a complex cognitive activity that is indispensable for adequate functioning and obtaining information in contemporary society (Alfassi, 2004; Zhang, 1993). In classroom activity, teacher tend to use the conventional technique to teach reading that is by giving the text to the students and they should answer the question on it.
Barnett (1989) argues that reading is an interactive process combining top-down and bottom-up processing; as a result, it is very important for students to use appropriate reading strategies to increase their comprehension. A good technique is needed to teach reading. The teacher should understand about student’s psychology that they need something fun and not a boring activity. When students learn English, they are developing their intellectual. According to Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (2006) English has an important role in developing intellectual, social and emotional of the students.
Teaching Reading in junior high school must be seen as a whole processes where the teacher need to focus on reading skill it self. On national examination, it can not argued that most of the questions are in reading text. The fact is that the students have low ability in reading text. It needs to be a fun activity for teaching reading and effective for them.
BSN (2006) , the objectives of teaching reading at junior high school must be:
- Reading aloud a short functional text and easy by utterance, emphasizing and also by intonation correctly.
- To respond with meaning a short functional text accurately, fluently and correctly.
- To respond with rhetorical meaning a short easy accurately, fluently and correctly
However, year by year English is taught but it still finds unsatisfactory result especially in reading comprehension on descriptive text. Based on the writer experience in SMPN 1 Kuripan for apprenticeship teaching, the writer found the difficulties on students reading comprehension. That’s why a good technique should be used in order to get a good result. By using a good technique, the students are able to obtain the main information form the text faster and easier. Here, the writer will use mind mapping technique to improve students reading comprehension.
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.2.1 Research problem
Based on the background of study above, the problem of this research is:
How the reading skill could be improved by using mind mapping at the third year of SMPN 1 Kuripan class E, by following research question:
How does mind mapping improve student’s ability in reading comprehension?
1.2.2 Problem solution
The researcher taught reading using cycles activity. This is a different way from conventional technique which allow students to read and questioning. The cycle’s activity as follows:
Disscussing to reading
Mind mapping technique
Rewriting the text based on the key word s in mind map
Answering the questions
According to Sujana (2006), mind mapping is recommended as a good technique to absorb information presented in the text they need to take the key words and connect one key word to other key words in order to connect one idea to other idea and get the main idea or the big idea of the text, get the specific information and to be able to retain the information. That’s why the student’s will have a good ability to rewrite what they have read and as the consequences, they had a good ability in reading text.
Mind mapping is a good technique to solve the students problem in reading.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is:
How mind mapping can improve the students’ ability in reading comprehension at the third year students of SMPN 1 Kuripan class IX E.
1.4 Scope of Study
- The use of mind mapping to improve student’s ability and creativity in reading comprehension in Descriptive text.
- The third year students of SMPN 1 Kuripan Class X E in academic year 2013-2014.
1.5 Significance of Research
This research is expected to give contribution to teachers, students and school.
- Redesigning teaching reading strategy
- Motivated the English teachers to enrich their technique in teaching reading.
- Help students problem in reading descriptive text by using mind mapping
- Motivated them to love read English because by using this technique they were fun and love it.
- The result of this research will give a good contribution to the school as a bridge to upgrade the teaching-learning process.
1.6Definition of Terms
The terms that will be use as follow:
- Mind Mapping
The mind map is an expression of radiant thinking and is therefore a natural function of the human mind. It is a powerful graphic texhnique which provides a universal key to unlocking the potential of the brain. (Buzan, 1993)
At the basic level, reading is the recognition of the words. From simple recognition of the individual letters and how these letters from particular words to what each word means not just an individual level, but as a part of a text to see the big pictures of a text in order the reader may get the idea of information that the writer shares the text (Jacobs, 2008)
As noted by Salinger (2003 in Napper 2007) that a good reader are active and purposeful user of the text; they know how to extract meaning from what they read; connect what they read to what they have already known; and expand the idea and the information presented in the text.
Sujana (2006) stated that adolescence reader must be able to summarize, predict, retain the information, and present the information presented in the passage.
“Summary is a short statement that gives the main information about something, without giving all details.” (Longman Advance Dictionary, 2007)
- Descriptive text
Descriptive text is one of the text that should be master in junior high school.
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTESIS
2.1 Teaching Reading
Reading is one of the four skills which is difficult for students. It’s not a productive skill which make the students to produce language in words but it’s the skill which give the students for good input so they can get the information from what they read. Even though for junior high school reading is not for getting the information, but in reading it’s a good way to get the language input. Ediger (1999) noted that Reading is not a passive process. Information doesn’t not merely flow on one direction from the page to the readers’ brain” (Ediger, 1999, 1999:vii)
Harmer (1998) explains the principles of teaching reading as below:
- Reading is not passive skill
Reading is an incredible active occupation. To do it successfully, we have to understand what the words men.
- Students need to be engaged with what they are reading
Students who are not engaged with the reading text and not actively interested in what they are doing are less likely to benefit from it.
- Students should be encouraged to respond the content of reading text, not just to language. Students should be allowed to express their feelings about the topic.
- Prediction is the major factor in reading
Teacher should give students ‘hints’ so that they can predict what’s coming too. It will make them better and more engaged readers.
- Match the task to the topic
Once a decision has been taken about what reading text the students are going to read, we need to choose good reading task – the right of questions, engaging and useful puzzles, etc.
- Good teacher exploit reading text to the full
Any reading text is full of sentences, words, ideas, descriptions, etc. it does not make sense if teacher just to get students to read it and the move in to some thing else.
With the principles mentioned above, students need to know about what they are reading in order to get a good reading result.
Within each of these areas, numerous skills are needed to be successfully read. They are: comprehending a passage involves nothing importance details, identifying the main idea, tracking the sequence of events, drawing influence and conclusions, organizing ides, and applying what is read (Learner, 1993 in Gorman, 2001).
As the explanation above, we can see that reading is a complex process; it takes a serious effort to make students become fluent readers (Sujana, 2006)
2.1 Mind Mapping
2.1.1 Definition of mind mapping
According to Buzan (1993) The mind map is an expression of radiant thinking and is therefore a natural function of the human mind. It is a powerful graphic texhnique which provides a universal key to unlocking the potential of the brain. The mainmap can be applied to every aspect of life where improved learning and clearer thinking will enhance human performance. The mind map has four essential characteristics:
- The subject of attention is crystallised in a central image
- The main themes of the subject radiate from the central image as brances
- Brances comprise a key image or key word printed on an associated line. Topics of lesser importance are also represented as brances attached to higher level branches.
- The branches from a connected nodal structure.
Mind maps may be enhanced and enrich with color, pictures, code and dimension to add interest, beauty and individuality. These in turn aid creativity, memory and specifically the recall of information.
Mind maps help you to make a distinction between your mental storage capacity, which your mind map will help you achieve. Storing data efficiently multiples your capacity. It is like the difference between a well packed or badly packed warehouse, or a library with or without an ordering system.
2.1.2 Reading with mind mapping and summarizing
In mind mapping, the whole learning can take place especially for reading activity. According to Buzan (1993) states that mind maps provide the ideal opportunity to improve your head/ eye coordination and to develop and refine your visual skills. With a little more practice, the image making skills you have already develop can be used to take your mind maps in to the realms of art. Such mind maps enable your brain to express it’s own artistic and creative personality. In developing your own personal style it is especially useful to apply the guiding principles of image, color, dimention, and spacing.
2.1.3 How to create mind mapping technique
The techniques for creating mind mapping according to Buzan (1993) as follows:
- Use emphasis
o Always use a central image.
o Use images throughout your mind map.
o Use three or more colors per central image.
o Use dimension in images.
o Use synesthesia (the blending of the physical sense).
o Use various of size of orienting, line and image.
o Use organized spacing.
o Use appropriate spacing.
- Use association
o Use arrows when you want to make connections within and across the branch pattern.
o Use colors.
o Use codes.
- Be clear
o Use only one key word per line.
o Print all words .
o Print key words on lines.
o Make line length equal to word length
o Connect lines to other lines.
o Make the central lines thicker.
o Make your boundaries ‘embrace’ your branch out line.
o Make your images as clear as possible.
o Keep your paper placed horizontally in front of you.
o Keep your printing as upright as possible.
- Develop a personal style
o Use hierarchy
o Use numerical orders
The recommendations for mind map:
o Break mental blocks
2.1.4 Note taking
According to Buzan (1993)
- Linear pattering
The notes were usually in straight lines grammar, chronological sequences and hierarchical sequences were also used
These includes letters, words and numbers.
Analysis was used but it’s quality was adversely affected by the linear pattering, reflection too great an emphasis on the linear nature of presentation rather than context.
These standard notes show an almost complete absence of:
- Visual rhythm
- Visual pattern or just pattern
- Image (imagination)
- Spatial awareness
- Gestalt (wholeness)
The disadvantages of standard notes:
- They obscure the key words
- They make it difficult to remember
- They waste time
- They fail to stimulate the brain creativity
The result of research on note making/ taking
- Complete transcript notes given
- Complete transcript notes personally made
- Sentence summary notes given
- Sentences summary notes personally made
- Key words notes given
- Key words personally made
The hypothesis of this Classroom Action Research is:
“Mind Mapping can significantly improve student’s ability in reading comprehension for the third year students of SMPN 1 Kuripan class IX E, Academic year 2013-2014.
3.1 Method of Research
This research is a classroom action research which will be conducted in SMPN 1 Kuripan. The aim of this research is finding out how mind mapping could improve students reading ability.
3.2 Setting and Characteristic of Subject
This classroom action research will be conducted in SMPN 1 Kuripan at the third students class E in the first semester academic year 2013-2014. The school is located in Kuripan, West Nusa Tenggara. The subject of this research is the whole students of IX E class , they were all 26 students, 18 male and 8 female.
3.3 Factors Investigated
3.3.1 Students’ factor
3.3.2 Researcher factors
3.3.3 Methodological factors
Implemented the use of mind mapping technique on improving students’ reading comprehension in Descriptive Text to the third year students of X E in SMPN 1 Kuripan
3.4 Research Design
In this part, the researcher will prepare anything for applying the action such as: designing lesson plan, preparing performance indicator.
The researcher will conduct this research in three cycle consist of three meetings.
- Pre- Test
In this stage, the researcher want to collect the data about students ability on reading descriptive text.
- Treatments (using mind mapping technique in teaching descriptive text )
In this stage the researcher applying mind mapping technique in teaching descriptive text to the students. The reading will be divided in to three categories such as:
– Pre reading
c. Post- Test
This cycle is for the students English scores that they got from the text given by the researcher.
This is to see the students’ performance and activeness during the research taken. This way is important to decide how to treat the students’ especially using mind mapping technique. The students weakness were also noted in the observation sheet.
4. Analysis and Reflection (follow up)
3.5 Data and Data Collection Procedures
1. Types of Data
The type of this data is qualitative data which base of the test result that is pre test and post test.
2. Data resource
The source of data is from the students and the teacher. The data is from pre test and post test.
3. Data Collection Procedures
Observation will be done to measure students development in affective and psycomotoric domain. It will be done since teaching and learning process and evaluating to the activity of teacher and students.
The Test used by the researcher is pre-test and post-test. Pre-test will be given to know how far the knowledge first of the students about the materials (descriptive text) will given by the researcher. And post-test will be done at the last of this research. The purpose is to find out the students development towards the material given.
it will be in the form of:
– Making mind mapping
– Re-write the text
– Answering yes/no and WH- questions
4. Assessements/ Instrumental
a. Making mind mapping
b. rewrite the original text
c. answering questions using Yes/ No question and WH question
The researcher used qualitative and quantitative
- Mind mapping (good product)
(Lebaurer, Roni S. 2000 p.21)
What are marked
Students can take the most important key words as the major idea of the text
Students can take the minor idea and make some key words as the detail information of the minor idea.
Students visually can represent the relationship between pieces of information
- Re written text ( good product)
- Yes/No question and WH questions
What are marked here
It consists of ten questions. Each question will be marked 10.
Consist of ten questions. Each question will be marked 10
3.6 Data Analysis
The data will be analyzed as quantitative data. They were obtained from the result of students’ result test. The data from questionnaires will be analyzed to find out the frequency and percentages.
The data from questionnaires will be analyzed by using the percentage method as follow:
10 : the formula to find out the raw score after changed into final score in which :
fs : The students individual obtained final score
p : the possible maximum raw score based on scoring system
10 : the maximum higher final score
N : the student individual obtained raw score
In which :
M : Mean
Ʃ: Sum of the score
N : Number of student
3.7 Performance indicators
The students will be pass the test if 80 % of them get the score <70.
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