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The Effect of Using Scripted Role Play to Improve Students Speaking Ability (An Experimental Research on XI Grade OF MAN 2 Mataram, Academic Year 2013-2014)







1.1   Background of The Study

Globalization has brought all the nations to open their mind about the importance of International language to communicate with another. As the necessity of the International language, English has become important languages in the world. English is spoken and learnt by all the nations. Looking at this importance in this global era, speaking skill becomes one of the most important skills to communicate with another country. In this era of globalization, the ability to speak English is a huge asset in the increasingly local and global workplace (Gerrish & Lacey, 2010). Within any company in the modern world of open economy, being able to speak the English language is a requirement of stake holders and customers. Thus, to meet the demands of the global  economy,  English speaking skill becomes the medium for ease of communication (Khamkhien, 2010).  

Indonesia as one of the parts global community can’t deny that the Speaking skill is important to the educational development in order to survive in traditional market. The increasing demand of good communication skills in English has activated English teaching around  the world (Richard,  2006). In Indonesia, English is taught from the elementary level to the university level. But in fact, in the class room activity just some of the students are able to speak fluently and mostly are in low level. The possible reason for this case is that the students just sit on their chair, listen to the teacher explaining about the lesson material, lack of speaking opportunity, where that’s all are not a good idea to improve their speaking ability. The teachers are still looking for a good technique to increase their students speaking skill to use the target language and then there are lots of activities are introduce to develop the students speaking skill.

                         Larsen-Freeman  (1986)  said  that a classroom during a communicative activity will not  be  quiet.  The  students  do  most  of  the speaking  and  the  ambiance  of  the  classroom during  a  communicative  exercise  is  active.  The students may leave their seats to complete a task.

As  mentioned above, scripted role play come up to help the students to improve students speaking ability. It will provide the students opportunity to use the target language to communicate with the other and here scripted role play is the solution communicative activity for them.

             There  are  two  broad  types  of  role-play activities  often  used  in  English  language classrooms:  scripted  and  non-scripted  role-plays. To  perform  role-plays  of  the  scripted  type,  the students  will  have  to  work  in  pairs  or  small groups.  They  are  given  prompts  related  to  the target scenarios. Then, they will have to use the prompts  as  the  model  to  form  the  target dialogue.  The  students  rehearse  that  dialogue before performing  it  in  front  of  the  class.  In  the non-scripted  role-play,  on  the  other  hand,  the students  are  assigned  to perform  the  role-play activity  in  front  of  the  class  based  on  the prompts  given  without  preparing  or  writing  the script in advance (Byrne as cited in Davies, 1990). Livingstone (1983) stated that role-play is a  classroom  activity  allowing  the  students  to practice  the  language,  the  aspects  of  role behavior  (e.g.  formality,  register,  function, attitude,  paralinguistic  features,  extra-linguistic features,  acceptability  and  appropriateness,  and the immediacy of oral interaction), and the roles outside  the  classroom  that  they  may  need  to know.  She  commented  that  the  teacher  cannot accurately predict all the roles that the students may  need  to  know  in  order  to  communicate  in real  life.  Hence,  she  suggested  that  the  teacher may  help  raise  students’  awareness  and understanding  of  role  behavior  and  have  them extensively practice the language associated with these  roles.   

In  Thai  education,  teachers  normally implement scripted role-play to improve student speaking  proficiency.  Non-scripted  role-play  is rarely found in English language classes, with the reason  being  that  this  type  of  role-play  is  quite complicated,  and  teachers  should  look  to  set achievable  goals  for  the  students.  It  can  also create  too  rigid,  stressful  atmosphere  for  the students  since  there  is  little  opportunity  to prepare and rehearse the dialogue.  However, it is still too early to lay claim that scripted role-plays have the advantage over non-scripted  ones  in  developing  the  student’s oral ability. The results show that some students trained  with  scripted  role-play  really  struggle  to  speak English in real-life situations. As a matter of fact,  there  have  been  few  studies  directly investigating the results of both types of role play activities  with  the  focus  on  the  aptitude  of students  in  speaking  English.   

            As the result, this research will concern to identify the effect of scripted role play to improve student speaking ability in grade XI of MAN 2 Mataram.







1.2 Research Question

The problem of this study is:

Is there an effect of script role play to improve students speaking ability in grade XI of MAN 2 Mataram academic year 2013-2014?

1.3  Research Objectives

This purpose of this study is to identify whether the use of script role play is effective to improve the students speaking ability in grade XI of MAN 2 Mataram academic year 2013/2014.

1.4  The Scope of Research

This study is limited to identify the effect of using role play in speaking skill. This technique is applied for teaching speaking skill in grade XI of MAN 2 Mataram academic year 2013/2014.

1.5  The Significance of Study

  1. Theoretical Significance

In theory, this study will be able to give the effect of using scripted role play to improve students speaking ability.

  1. Practical Significance

a. For students

1. The students are able to improve their speaking skill ability.

2. Through scripted role play in teaching learning activity, hopes it can dig the student’s interest in Speaking because the method is fun.

b. For the teacher

1. The teacher can motive students to encourage their vocabulary through some models of the mapping word technique.

2. Teaching speaking by using script role play is attractive, so it’s able to increase student’s interest.

3. It might for student to share their thoughts with their friends about what will be spoken in front of the class.

c.For the Institution

Scripted role play can be applied for some of the English learning purpose to increase student’s skill. It’s not merely for improving student’s speaking ability but also it can be applied in vocabulary learning.

For the institution script role play can help students in general to develop their English capabilities to the School (the institution) gets the achievements and appreciation to the education institution.

d.For the public (the readers in general)

The implementation of Script role play to improve student’s speaking skill is hoped can be followed by another teacher in teaching speaking activity.

1.6  Hypothesis of Study

The hypotheses of this research are divided into two hypotheses.

  1. Alternant Hypothesis (Ha) “there is a significant effect of using script role play to improve students speaking ability.
  2. Null Hypothesis (Ho) “there is no effect of using script role play to improve the students speaking ability.




2.1               Speaking Skill related to communicative approach

In Oxford Advanced Dictionary the definition of speaking is “to express or communicate opinions, feelings, ideas, etc, by or as talking and it involves the activities in the part of the speaker as psychological, physiological (articulator) and physical (acoustic) stages.”( Oxford Advance Dictionary)

There are five features of CLT pointed out by Nunan:

– An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.

– The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.

– The provision of opportunities for learners  to focus, not only on language, but also on the Learning Management process.

– An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.

– An  attempt  to  link  classroom  language  learning  with  language  activities  outside  the classroom.  (David Nunan, 1991)

Those principles show that the communicative approach is related to the speaking skill which is focuses on students need and desire. It can be concluded that CLT any teaching practice that helps the students to develop their communicative competence is deemed an acceptable and beneficial from instruction.

2.1.1. Cooperative Learning (CL)

Slavin (1987) stated: “Cooperative classrooms are classrooms where students are likely to attain higher levels of achievement, to increase  time on task, to build cross-ethnic friendships, to experience  enhanced  self-esteem,  to  build  life-long  interaction  and  communication skills,  and  to  master  the  habits  of  mind  (critical,  creative  and  self-regulated)  needed  to function as productive members of society.”

2.2  Definition of Role Play

According to Little Wood (1948, p 49) states that in a role play “Learners are asked to imagine them selves in a situation which could occur out side the class room; to adopt a specific role in this situation; and to behave as if the situation really excited in accordance with their roles.” Where according to Richards (1985) states that “Role play typically involves a) a situation in which a setting participants and a goal or problem is described; b) description of the role of each of the participants and the task he or she has to accomplish (p.86).  According to Ladorsse (1987, p.5) States that “When students assume a ‘role’ they play a part (either their own or somebody else’s) in a specific situations; play means that the role is taken on in a safe environment in which students are as inventive and playful as possible.

2.2.1 Scripted Role-play in developing speaking skills

According to Byrne (1986), role play can be grouped into two forms, scripted and unscripted role play.  Holding  different  ideas  from  Byrne,  in  dividing  types  of  role-play,  Littlewood  (1981) reported  that  role-play  activities  can  be  categorized  into  four  types  as  follow:  Role-playing  controlled through  cued  dialogues,  Role-playing  controlled  through  cues  and information,  Roleplaying  controlled  through  situation  and  goals,  Role-playing  in  the form of debate or discussion

2.2.2. Roles of teachers and students in role-play activities

 According to Morrow, (1977: 71), “the learner is now concerned with using language,not English usage. In order to do this, learners  take on roles and interact with other learners who also have roles. What they say is determined by the roles they play, their communicative intentions and the contribution of the other learners”.

2.2.3. Significance of Role Play in Developing Speaking Skills

Role play is a technique which can develops students’ fluency in the  target  language, promotes  students  to  interact  with  others  in  the  classroom,  increases  motivation  and makes the teaching-learning process more enjoyable.


3.1  Research Design

This paper conducts an experimental method. Some views on the definition of the experimental method stated as follow: Surakhmad (1989:29) states that: “Experimental research is the method of the research which explain the data for predicting the events in the future”
Suryabrata (2003:58) states that experimental design is; “The experiment research is oriented to observe possibility of causal- effect by giving treatment to on or more experimental groups, within it on or more condition of treatment trying to compare the result of the samples”.

Based on the views above, the method that is used is descriptive quantitative method which aims to determine the relationship between independent variable with dependent variable. The writer tries to find out the significant effect of using scripted role play to improve the student’s speaking ability.

This study will implement the mix group which consists of experimental class and control plemented scripted role play will occurs in the experimental class, while the conventional technique will be applied in the control class. By using the mix group, we will be able to idnetify how much scripted role play can contribute toward the students’speaking ability.

1.2     Population and Sampling Technique

1.2.1        Population of Study

According to H. Muhammad Ali, (1992:5)“If the sample really represent of population, what is known about the sample is our knowledge of the population. The implication is, if the research which used really represent of population, so done generally to the population”. While according to Arikunto (2006) who defines that population is all of individual of subject research.

 The population of this study were  320 students  of grade XI MAN 2 Mataram which devided in to 9 classes with 30-37 students in each class.  The sampling of this study is random sampling. As the result, Class XI IPS 3 and XI IPS 4  are selected. The sample of class XI IPS 3 is designed as the experimental class, while XI IPS 4 is as control class. The experimental class will be treated by using scripted role play and conventional technique for the control class applied by the teacher. The Researcher will gave the test before and after applying the scripted role play  for both of classes.

1.2.2        Sampling Technique

The sampling technique which used by the researcher is random sampling. The researcher chooses the random sampling because from the three major study of the high school, Social class is in the middle of language class and science class. The students in social class get the English class balance where in language class they get the English class often than social and science class. Taken the sample from eleven grade is caused by in that level, the students had learn most in the nine grade but they still have the lack of speaking in the target language. After that, the elected grade XI IPS 3 and XI IPS 4 which consists of 37 students as research sample as Arikunto (2006) who maintains that if the number of population is less than 100, so the sample is all population. However, when the population is more than 100, it can be taken the sample consist of 20-25% or more. As the result,  The total number of sample is 74  students which were taken from 320 amount of population or less than 25 %. And then the writer classified to be an experimental group and control group. Each group consist of thirty seven (37) students.


1.3     Research Variable


There are two variable of this study: independent and dependent variable. The independent variable is the use of scripted role play, because the variable can affect the dependent variable. While the dependent variable is students speaking ability because that variable is influenced by the independent variable.

1.4    Technique of Collecting Data

There are some steps that is used by the researcher to collect the data, that is:

  1. Pre test

In the first meeting, the researcher will give the pre-test to the students in speaking using conventional learning technique.

  1. Treatment

In the second meeting the researcher will give the treatment to the students where for the control group the teacher use the conventional technique to teach speaking skill. Whereas for the experimental group the teacher will apply the scripted role play in teaching speaking. In the end of the class, the researcher provides a  test at the end of the class meeting.

  1. Treatment will be done in three times
  2. Post test

After the three step is done the researcher will conduct the post test for both control and experimental group.


1.5    Data Analysis Technique


In order to answer the questions in this experimental research, the writer collects the data and begins to find out raw scores of the experimental group and control group obtained from the test that stated by Heaton (1974;94). Next, the writer analyzes and interprets all of the data obtained through all of the instrument. The first steps done is finding out the raw score of both group. The second steps done is finding out the main score of both group. The writer use the following formula :

    10 : the formula to find out the raw score after changed into final score in which :

fs : The students individual obtained final score

p : the possible maximum raw score based on scoring system

10 : the maximum higher final score

N : the student individual obtained raw score

 : the formula to find out the mean score of the experimental group.

 : The formula to find out the mean score of the control group.

In which :

M : Mean

X : Experimental group

Y : The control grou

Ʃ : Sum of

N : Number of object

The mean scores obtained from the formula above are interpreted and analyzed. The last step is that the writer find out the square deviation of the both group by using the formula bellow.

            =  –                  : The square deviation of experimental group.

             –                : The square deviation of the control group.

            When the mean score of the both group have been identified, the writer then computed the correlation coefficient of the two mean scores whether they are categorized as significant or not, inthis case, the t – test formula is applied.

In which,

Mx         = the mean score of experimental group

My         = the mean score of control group

X/Y        = the deviation of x1 / y1 and x2 / y2

Σ                       = the sum of … .

√            = the root 0f … .

Nx          = the number of sample of experimental group

Ny = the number of sample of control group

( Arikunto 2006 : 312)


Oxford Advance Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1995.

Khamkhien, A. (2010). Teaching English Speaking and English Speaking Test in Thai Context. English Language Teaching, 3, 1:184-190.

Richards , J. C.,& Rodgers, T.S (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Byrne, D. (1986). Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher.  Singapore: Longman Group. 



1 Komentar

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