FINAL PAPER OF RESEARCH ON ELT
1.1 Background of The Study
Globalization has brought all the nations to open their mind about the importance of International language to communicate with another. As the necessity of the International language, English has become important languages in the world. English is spoken and learnt by all the nations. Looking at this importance in this global era, speaking skill becomes one of the most important skills to communicate with another country. In this era of globalization, the ability to speak English is a huge asset in the increasingly local and global workplace (Gerrish & Lacey, 2010). Within any company in the modern world of open economy, being able to speak the English language is a requirement of stake holders and customers. Thus, to meet the demands of the global economy, English speaking skill becomes the medium for ease of communication (Khamkhien, 2010).
Indonesia as one of the parts global community can’t deny that the Speaking skill is important to the educational development in order to survive in traditional market. The increasing demand of good communication skills in English has activated English teaching around the world (Richard, 2006). In Indonesia, English is taught from the elementary level to the university level. But in fact, in the class room activity just some of the students are able to speak fluently and mostly are in low level. The possible reason for this case is that the students just sit on their chair, listen to the teacher explaining about the lesson material, lack of speaking opportunity, where that’s all are not a good idea to improve their speaking ability. The teachers are still looking for a good technique to increase their students speaking skill to use the target language and then there are lots of activities are introduce to develop the students speaking skill.
Larsen-Freeman (1986) said that a classroom during a communicative activity will not be quiet. The students do most of the speaking and the ambiance of the classroom during a communicative exercise is active. The students may leave their seats to complete a task.
As mentioned above, scripted role play come up to help the students to improve students speaking ability. It will provide the students opportunity to use the target language to communicate with the other and here scripted role play is the solution communicative activity for them.
There are two broad types of role-play activities often used in English language classrooms: scripted and non-scripted role-plays. To perform role-plays of the scripted type, the students will have to work in pairs or small groups. They are given prompts related to the target scenarios. Then, they will have to use the prompts as the model to form the target dialogue. The students rehearse that dialogue before performing it in front of the class. In the non-scripted role-play, on the other hand, the students are assigned to perform the role-play activity in front of the class based on the prompts given without preparing or writing the script in advance (Byrne as cited in Davies, 1990). Livingstone (1983) stated that role-play is a classroom activity allowing the students to practice the language, the aspects of role behavior (e.g. formality, register, function, attitude, paralinguistic features, extra-linguistic features, acceptability and appropriateness, and the immediacy of oral interaction), and the roles outside the classroom that they may need to know. She commented that the teacher cannot accurately predict all the roles that the students may need to know in order to communicate in real life. Hence, she suggested that the teacher may help raise students’ awareness and understanding of role behavior and have them extensively practice the language associated with these roles.
In Thai education, teachers normally implement scripted role-play to improve student speaking proficiency. Non-scripted role-play is rarely found in English language classes, with the reason being that this type of role-play is quite complicated, and teachers should look to set achievable goals for the students. It can also create too rigid, stressful atmosphere for the students since there is little opportunity to prepare and rehearse the dialogue. However, it is still too early to lay claim that scripted role-plays have the advantage over non-scripted ones in developing the student’s oral ability. The results show that some students trained with scripted role-play really struggle to speak English in real-life situations. As a matter of fact, there have been few studies directly investigating the results of both types of role play activities with the focus on the aptitude of students in speaking English.
As the result, this research will concern to identify the effect of scripted role play to improve student speaking ability in grade XI of MAN 2 Mataram.
1.2 Research Question
The problem of this study is:
Is there an effect of script role play to improve students speaking ability in grade XI of MAN 2 Mataram academic year 2013-2014?
1.3 Research Objectives
This purpose of this study is to identify whether the use of script role play is effective to improve the students speaking ability in grade XI of MAN 2 Mataram academic year 2013/2014.
1.4 The Scope of Research
This study is limited to identify the effect of using role play in speaking skill. This technique is applied for teaching speaking skill in grade XI of MAN 2 Mataram academic year 2013/2014.
1.5 The Significance of Study
- Theoretical Significance
In theory, this study will be able to give the effect of using scripted role play to improve students speaking ability.
- Practical Significance
a. For students
1. The students are able to improve their speaking skill ability.
2. Through scripted role play in teaching learning activity, hopes it can dig the student’s interest in Speaking because the method is fun.
b. For the teacher
1. The teacher can motive students to encourage their vocabulary through some models of the mapping word technique.
2. Teaching speaking by using script role play is attractive, so it’s able to increase student’s interest.
3. It might for student to share their thoughts with their friends about what will be spoken in front of the class.
c.For the Institution
Scripted role play can be applied for some of the English learning purpose to increase student’s skill. It’s not merely for improving student’s speaking ability but also it can be applied in vocabulary learning.
For the institution script role play can help students in general to develop their English capabilities to the School (the institution) gets the achievements and appreciation to the education institution.
d.For the public (the readers in general)
The implementation of Script role play to improve student’s speaking skill is hoped can be followed by another teacher in teaching speaking activity.
1.6 Hypothesis of Study
The hypotheses of this research are divided into two hypotheses.
- Alternant Hypothesis (Ha) “there is a significant effect of using script role play to improve students speaking ability.
- Null Hypothesis (Ho) “there is no effect of using script role play to improve the students speaking ability.
2.1 Speaking Skill related to communicative approach
In Oxford Advanced Dictionary the definition of speaking is “to express or communicate opinions, feelings, ideas, etc, by or as talking and it involves the activities in the part of the speaker as psychological, physiological (articulator) and physical (acoustic) stages.”( Oxford Advance Dictionary)
There are five features of CLT pointed out by Nunan:
– An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
– The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.
– The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language, but also on the Learning Management process.
– An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.
– An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom. (David Nunan, 1991)
Those principles show that the communicative approach is related to the speaking skill which is focuses on students need and desire. It can be concluded that CLT any teaching practice that helps the students to develop their communicative competence is deemed an acceptable and beneficial from instruction.
2.1.1. Cooperative Learning (CL)
Slavin (1987) stated: “Cooperative classrooms are classrooms where students are likely to attain higher levels of achievement, to increase time on task, to build cross-ethnic friendships, to experience enhanced self-esteem, to build life-long interaction and communication skills, and to master the habits of mind (critical, creative and self-regulated) needed to function as productive members of society.”
2.2 Definition of Role Play
According to Little Wood (1948, p 49) states that in a role play “Learners are asked to imagine them selves in a situation which could occur out side the class room; to adopt a specific role in this situation; and to behave as if the situation really excited in accordance with their roles.” Where according to Richards (1985) states that “Role play typically involves a) a situation in which a setting participants and a goal or problem is described; b) description of the role of each of the participants and the task he or she has to accomplish (p.86). According to Ladorsse (1987, p.5) States that “When students assume a ‘role’ they play a part (either their own or somebody else’s) in a specific situations; play means that the role is taken on in a safe environment in which students are as inventive and playful as possible.
2.2.1 Scripted Role-play in developing speaking skills
According to Byrne (1986), role play can be grouped into two forms, scripted and unscripted role play. Holding different ideas from Byrne, in dividing types of role-play, Littlewood (1981) reported that role-play activities can be categorized into four types as follow: Role-playing controlled through cued dialogues, Role-playing controlled through cues and information, Roleplaying controlled through situation and goals, Role-playing in the form of debate or discussion
2.2.2. Roles of teachers and students in role-play activities
According to Morrow, (1977: 71), “the learner is now concerned with using language,not English usage. In order to do this, learners take on roles and interact with other learners who also have roles. What they say is determined by the roles they play, their communicative intentions and the contribution of the other learners”.
2.2.3. Significance of Role Play in Developing Speaking Skills
Role play is a technique which can develops students’ fluency in the target language, promotes students to interact with others in the classroom, increases motivation and makes the teaching-learning process more enjoyable.
3.1 Research Design
This paper conducts an experimental method. Some views on the definition of the experimental method stated as follow: Surakhmad (1989:29) states that: “Experimental research is the method of the research which explain the data for predicting the events in the future”
Suryabrata (2003:58) states that experimental design is; “The experiment research is oriented to observe possibility of causal- effect by giving treatment to on or more experimental groups, within it on or more condition of treatment trying to compare the result of the samples”.
Based on the views above, the method that is used is descriptive quantitative method which aims to determine the relationship between independent variable with dependent variable. The writer tries to find out the significant effect of using scripted role play to improve the student’s speaking ability.
This study will implement the mix group which consists of experimental class and control plemented scripted role play will occurs in the experimental class, while the conventional technique will be applied in the control class. By using the mix group, we will be able to idnetify how much scripted role play can contribute toward the students’speaking ability.
1.2 Population and Sampling Technique
1.2.1 Population of Study
According to H. Muhammad Ali, (1992:5)“If the sample really represent of population, what is known about the sample is our knowledge of the population. The implication is, if the research which used really represent of population, so done generally to the population”. While according to Arikunto (2006) who defines that population is all of individual of subject research.
The population of this study were 320 students of grade XI MAN 2 Mataram which devided in to 9 classes with 30-37 students in each class. The sampling of this study is random sampling. As the result, Class XI IPS 3 and XI IPS 4 are selected. The sample of class XI IPS 3 is designed as the experimental class, while XI IPS 4 is as control class. The experimental class will be treated by using scripted role play and conventional technique for the control class applied by the teacher. The Researcher will gave the test before and after applying the scripted role play for both of classes.
1.2.2 Sampling Technique
The sampling technique which used by the researcher is random sampling. The researcher chooses the random sampling because from the three major study of the high school, Social class is in the middle of language class and science class. The students in social class get the English class balance where in language class they get the English class often than social and science class. Taken the sample from eleven grade is caused by in that level, the students had learn most in the nine grade but they still have the lack of speaking in the target language. After that, the elected grade XI IPS 3 and XI IPS 4 which consists of 37 students as research sample as Arikunto (2006) who maintains that if the number of population is less than 100, so the sample is all population. However, when the population is more than 100, it can be taken the sample consist of 20-25% or more. As the result, The total number of sample is 74 students which were taken from 320 amount of population or less than 25 %. And then the writer classified to be an experimental group and control group. Each group consist of thirty seven (37) students.
1.3 Research Variable
There are two variable of this study: independent and dependent variable. The independent variable is the use of scripted role play, because the variable can affect the dependent variable. While the dependent variable is students speaking ability because that variable is influenced by the independent variable.
1.4 Technique of Collecting Data
There are some steps that is used by the researcher to collect the data, that is:
- Pre test
In the first meeting, the researcher will give the pre-test to the students in speaking using conventional learning technique.
In the second meeting the researcher will give the treatment to the students where for the control group the teacher use the conventional technique to teach speaking skill. Whereas for the experimental group the teacher will apply the scripted role play in teaching speaking. In the end of the class, the researcher provides a test at the end of the class meeting.
- Treatment will be done in three times
- Post test
After the three step is done the researcher will conduct the post test for both control and experimental group.
1.5 Data Analysis Technique
In order to answer the questions in this experimental research, the writer collects the data and begins to find out raw scores of the experimental group and control group obtained from the test that stated by Heaton (1974;94). Next, the writer analyzes and interprets all of the data obtained through all of the instrument. The first steps done is finding out the raw score of both group. The second steps done is finding out the main score of both group. The writer use the following formula :
10 : the formula to find out the raw score after changed into final score in which :
fs : The students individual obtained final score
p : the possible maximum raw score based on scoring system
10 : the maximum higher final score
N : the student individual obtained raw score
: the formula to find out the mean score of the experimental group.
: The formula to find out the mean score of the control group.
In which :
M : Mean
X : Experimental group
Y : The control grou
Ʃ : Sum of
N : Number of object
The mean scores obtained from the formula above are interpreted and analyzed. The last step is that the writer find out the square deviation of the both group by using the formula bellow.
= – : The square deviation of experimental group.
– : The square deviation of the control group.
When the mean score of the both group have been identified, the writer then computed the correlation coefficient of the two mean scores whether they are categorized as significant or not, inthis case, the t – test formula is applied.
Mx = the mean score of experimental group
My = the mean score of control group
X/Y = the deviation of x1 / y1 and x2 / y2
Σ = the sum of … .
√ = the root 0f … .
Nx = the number of sample of experimental group
Ny = the number of sample of control group
( Arikunto 2006 : 312)
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Richards , J. C.,& Rodgers, T.S (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Byrne, D. (1986). Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher. Singapore: Longman Group.