ASSIGNMENT OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
BY : Fera Komalasari
Class : VI- A
Student number: E1D 010 002
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
Communication can be seen as a cooperative act. People cooperate with each other as they communicate as they do in any other shared activity. That is what Grice (1975) believe as an English language philosopher. He said that communication is a cooperative behavior. It means that in discourse weather it in spoken or written there must be a join effort. Both speaker and the hearer must follow certain role in order to make the conversation effectively. ThisZassumption is called cooperative principle (as cited from Paltridge: 2000).
Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. (Grice,1975:45)
Somehow, the communication doesn’t always run successfully between two people. Miscommunication happen because the massage delivered by the speaker is wrong accepted by the hearer.
There are two data of miscommunication below.
- There are 2 women debate about the use of hot and warm
Susan: Oh….. You look funny eating something like that
Diana: Nggak lucu. Panas…. Ouuuuu panas banget. (it’s not funny. Warm… ouuu it’s very warm)
Susan: Kamu nggak seharusnya bilang panas, tapi pedes. Kita pakai kata panas untuk contoh cuaca misalnya, bukannya panas gara-gara sambal, salah kamu, salah.
(You should not say warm, but hot. You know we have to use the word hot if the taste is hot because of the weather for instance, not because of the chilli, you are wrong, you wrong .
Diana: Could you silent please? It’s not a good way for me eating this soup if you don’t understand it.
Susan: Hey…. Use a good sentence please. I’m trying to explain you about a grammatical sentence.
Diana: But you don’t understand it.
Diana: What do you mean?
Susan: You shouldn’t use warm to indicate something that is hot by chili, but you should say hot.
Diana: Hey…. It’s not caused by the chili but it has already just poured to the plate and the soup is warm. So I have some difficulties to eat the soup.
In that case, Susan has a misunderstanding about what Diana says. She thinks that Diana feels hot because of the taste of chili. In fact, she doesn’t. Diana feel hot because of the boil water of the soup.
Mother: Belian ku bunga, lemak*! (Buy me the cotton, now please!)
Aya: Come on sister we buy cotton
Fitri: Who ask you?
Fitri: When we should buy?
Mother: Lemak mo! (hurry up!)
Fitri: She said we must buy it tomorrow sister!
Aya: She said now, not tomorrow.
Fitri: Oh God. Don’t you hear it? Mother said tomorrow.
Aya: Who said tomorrow? She will use it now.
Fitri: You should hear when your mother talked.
Aya: Why me? I heard it. She spoke using Sumbawaness, not Sasakness so you have a trouble with it. She said Lemak means now in Sumbawaness but when you translate it in Sasakness you will use Lemak as tomorrow. Do you understand?
Fitri: I don’t think so. Then, we may ask mother once again.
Aya: Mom….. Should we buy it now?
Mother: Lemak mo
Fitri: Do you hear it? Mother said tomorrow.
Mother: Not tomorrow but now.
As the second case, there is a misunderstanding between the sisters. In Sumbawa language, Lemak means now- for hurry thing. But in Sasak Language, they use Lemak as means of tomorrow. Even though the two languages are in same province, but the language is different and it sometimes causes misunderstanding. Somehow, it often happened in communication when people said A and the hearer understand it as B.
Miscommunication happens not only in one language but also between two or more languages. Sometimes it’s hard to avoid it. The only way to make the conversation run well is that the speaker and the hearer must know well about the language, when- where- to whom is it used.
Gricean maxims Wikipedia
Paul Manning Anthropology/Champlain College Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. pdf