REVIEW OF THE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE
Fera Komalasari. E1D010002. Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mataram University. 2013.
This assignment will critically discuss about the functions of language. Those functions are transactional and interactional.
Discourse analysis is the analysis of language in use (Brown and Yule 1983). It also examines how stretches of language become meaningful and unified for their users (Cook 1989). Discourse analysts also consider the relationship between language and the contexts in which it is used and are concerned with the description and analysis of both spoken and written interactions (McCarthy 1991). Its primary purpose is to provide a deeper understanding and appreciation of texts.
That function which language serves in the expression of context we will describe as transactional, and that function involved in exressing social relations and personal attitudes we will discribe as interactional (Brown and Yule 1983).
The transactional view:
Transactional view sees that the speech must be still on context. The use of language is the best way to transfer the information. When the language is used to convey the factual information, it is caled as transactional language. where in the speaker (or writer) mind must be transfer efficiently to the hearer so it is message oriented. E.g Between the doctor and the patient, it must be made clear what he says. Unless it will be a problem if the message doesn’t deliver well. The patient will not understand and have a trouble in it.
The interactional view
This is the way the function of language is to maintain social relationship. In this case the language use are to negotiate role relationship, peer solidarity and conversation exchange turns. In daily life, it can’t be argued that the interactional language in function is very close to the people.
Related to what is interactional and transactional, it can be found that in every day life conversation is tend to use the interactional view. Actually, the transactional is rarely used in daily life.
Thus if a policeman gives directions to a traveler, doctors tells a nurse how to administer medicine to a patient…. (Brown and Yule 1983). In transactional activity, the goal is to transmiting the clear information rather than in interactional information.Chomsky (1965) observed, there is no limited to the number of possible sentence that can be generated from the grammar and lexicon of a language. However, stringing together a random group of sentences that may grammatical allowable doesn’t result in discourse. Discourse must instead be organized in some coherrent way that make sense in context of an interaction. Thus, one important aspect of discourse
analysis is that texts are regarded as wholes, beyond the level of the grammatical sentence. This extended structure—the sequence in which the language occurs and the connections among the units— becomes an object of study in itself. It is also possible for the analysis of a very short text to count as a discourse analysis. Austin (1970, 243), for example, argued that a sign posted in a field and bearing the single word “Bull” could function as a warning. He was interested in how this language constituted a kind of action—the “speech act” of warning. The point is that regardless of its size, if considered as a functional entity, any text can be analyzed as discourse.
Crystal (1987, 116) cites the common concern among dis-course analysts “to see language as a dynamic, social, interactive phenomenon—whether between speaker and listener, or writer and reader.
Based on what Crystal says, the interactional view is more affective in daily life context rather than the transactioanl view. On observing this statement, we can see in social media such as facebook where the messages are generally reply using the interactonal context. In that case, between the writer and the reader generally using it to be more friendly, and not based on massage or what the writer types.
Considering the relationship, people tend to use the interactional function rather than the transactional even though they want to get the clear message to reply or to say it.
In daily life, people tend to use the interactional to make their relationship more friendly. The people rarely to use the transactional view because the relationship is more important rather than the message it self.
Dr. Leon James (c)1973.
Discourse Analysis and Second Language Writing. pdf
Mrs. Vrushali Nagarale [ S.N.D.T. College of Home Science, Karve Road, Pune ] Article.
ASSIGNMENT DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
THE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE
BY : Fera Komalasari
Class : VI- A
Student number: E1D 010 002
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION