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LEARN TURKISH

LEARN TURKISH

 (PART 1)Gambar

 Lesson 01

Ok, we’re not going to slam you with information and thousands of facts about where, why and how Turkish language occured. For sure this kind of information is better available from online encyclopedias and search engines. No, at this point we just get started with learning. First we are going to pass you some basic information about Turkish which is necessary to understand and enables you to get comfortable with the “system” of Turkish language.

1.1 ALPHABET

Turkish uses the latin alphabet, just like English. Additionally there are some more letters which stand for a special sound. The letters W, X and Q don’t exist in Turkish alphabet, as they are formed differently: for example Van (V like W), Taksi (instead of Taxi) and K is the same sound as Q.

Therefore Turkish alphabet looks as follows (you can play each letter to hear the pronounciation):
A – a
B – b
C – c (like J in JUNGLE)
Ç – ç (like CH in CHANCE)
D – d
E – e
F – f
G – g (like G in GARDEN, never like G in GENERAL)
Ğ – ğ (yumuşak g, it’s a special sound which is acutally not spoken, it just lengthens the vowel; ğ just occures after vowels and never at the beginning of a word, for example yağmur = the rain sounds more like yaa-mur)
H – h (always spoken, like H in HOTEL)
I – ı (this again is a special sound, it looks like an i, but notice that it’s not dotted. It sounds like an E in TIGER)
İ – i (sounds like EE in BEE, this time dotted, which is important as it is also dotted in capital letter)
J – j (similar to C but softer, usually used for words originated from French language, like jandarma = gendarmerie)
K – k
L – l
M – m
N – n
O – o (like O in SOFT, never like O in BOW)
Ö – ö (like U in BURGER)
P – p
R – r (strongly rolled, even more than the usual English R)
S – s (sharp S like in BUS)
Ş – ş (like SH in SHOP)
T – t
U – u (OO like in BOOK, never spoken like YOU)
Ü – ü (EW like in FEW)
V – v (like W in WATER)
Y – y
Z – z (ZZ like in BUZZ)

1.2 PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND ARTICLES

In Turkish there is no gender like “he, she, it” and no definite article like “the”. Actually Turkish is a perfectly emancipated language which makes things much easier, doesn’t it? But there is an indefinite article: bir – which is also the digit 1. Here we are, you just learned another turkish word. Tebrikler (Congratulations!)… you see, just learned another one. Let’s keep this speed:

The personal prounouns are as follows:
ben = I
sen = you
o = he, she, it
biz = we
siz = you (plural) (siz is also the polite form)
onlar = they

1.3 VOWEL HARMONY

In Turkish there is the so called vowel harmony, which is differed in Little and GREAT VOWEL HARMONY. This is a MUST KNOW as it is the base for following grammar knowledge. Make yourself now familiar with the vowel harmony, though you still don’t know exactly how to use it. But it will be clear to you soon.

The turkish vowels are: a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü

Little Vowel Harmony:
a – ı – o – u is followed by a
e – i – ö – ü is followed by e

Great Vowel Harmony:
a – ı is followed by ı
e – i is followed by i
o – u is followed by u
ö – ü is followed by ü

Examples which make these rules clear will follow later.

1.4 SUFFIXES

Turkish is an agglutinated language which means that most words are formed with suffixes. Even complete sentences can therefore made with one word. Examples will also follow later as at this point we don’t want to irritate you too much.

 

1.5 CASES

Normally you know the 4 cases:
nominative (basic form)
accusative (who or what?)
dative (whom?)
genitive (whose?).

They also exist in Turkish but apart from that you have to learn about
ablative (from woher or from what?) and
lokative (where?).

Therefore Turkish has 6 cases but as you will notice later it’s not that complicated.

1.6 PHRASE CONSTRUCTION

Actually the phrase construction is summarized easily: Put the verb at the end of the sentence. Every other word prior to the verb can be placed almost in any order. Maybe here and there some wild combinations might sound strange but nevertheless you will be understood – as long as you keep the verb at the sentence’s end

If you learned and understood these five basic informations you already made a big step in learning Turkish. Actually Turkish is not a very complicated language. The only problem – if it might be one – is the pronounciation. But even that can be learned. And anyway just don’t be shy using what you learned. It can open hearts and an old turkish saying says:
Her dil insandır! = Every language is a human!


Vocabulary:
abece = the alphabet; İngilizce = English (the language!); bir = one, digit 1; dil = the language, the tongue; güneş = the sun; her = every; jandarma = the gendarmerie; insan = the human; otobüs = the bus; okul = the school; taksi = the taxi; Türkçe = Turkish (the language!); Van = a town in Turkey; yağmur = the rain


 Lesson 02

2.1. VERBS

Turkish verbs always end on -mak or -mek. ALWAYS! There is no exception, isn’t that great? And now we arrived at the vowel harmony. What luck you hammered this vowel harmony into your head before. The endings -mak and -mek depend on the little vowel harmony. In detail:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u then the verb always ends with -mak. Logically in all other cases (e, i, ö or ü) the verb ends with -mek. Normally you learn the verbs simply in their basic form but it could be helpful to understand why one verb ends with -mak but the other with -mek.

Examples:
yapmak = to do
çıkmak = to go out
bozmak = to break
uyumak = to sleep

sevmek = to love
getirmek = to bring
ölmek = to die
düşünmek = to think

Maybe it is getting more clear why there is a vowel harmony anyway. As the name says it’s about the harmony, in fact at speaking. It sounds more harmonical to say yapmak instead of “yapmek”. bilmek is also easier to speak out then “bilmak”. Even if it’s not that clear for you, don’t mind. Later it will be much more clear for you.

Well, now that you know the difference between the basic verb (infinitve) and the verb stem you know also how to form the…
TATARATAAAAAA!…

2.2 IMPERATIVE

The verb stem is automatically the infinitive for 2nd person singular:
yap! = do! (2nd person singular)
çık! = get out! (2nd person singular)
boz! = break!(2nd person singular – bozmak can also be used for changing money, making bills to coins)
uyu! = sleep! (2nd person singular)
sev! = love! (2nd person singular)
getir! = bring! (2nd person singular)
öl! = die! (2nd person singular – not very kind but primary this is about the grammar)
düşün! = think! (2nd person singular)

For forming the infinitve in 2nd person plural you just add the suffix -in.

ATTENTION! This suffix is related to the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, which means if the verb stem’s last vowel is an
a or ı, suffix -in changes to -ın
e or i, suffix -in stays unchanged
o or u, suffix -in changes to -un
ö or ü, suffix -in changes to -ün

Examples:
yapın! = do!
çıkın! = go out!
bozun! = break!
uyuyun! = sleep!
sevin! = love!
getirin! = bring!
ölün! = die!

düşünün! = think!

Remember that in Turkish the 2nd person plural is also the polite form in which you speak to unknown or elder people or respected persons (like your boss). In daily language it’s not unpolite to speak to people in 2nd person singular (sen = you, 2nd person singular) when it’s obvious that they are of same age or younger. If you are not sure, just choose the polite form. The reaction of your conversation partner will let you know if you exaggerate… 😉

By the way: if a verb stem already ends with a vowel (like uyu-) we add a y prior to the suffix. You will notice that in such cases this happens often: If two vowels meet, the Turks prefers to separate these squabblers with a “y”.

2.3 NEGATION OF IMPERATIVE

Now you also learn how to negate an imperative as this can be realized easily. You only have to add -me oder -ma to the verb stem, depending on the Little Vowel Harmony. For our know verb examples this then looks as follows:

yapma! = don’t do! (2nd person singular)
çıkma! = don’t go out! (2nd person singular)
bozma! = don’t break! (2nd person singular)
uyuma! = don’t sleep! (2nd person singular)
sevme! = don’t love! (2nd person singular)
getirme! = don’t bring! (2nd person singular)
ölme! = don’t die! (2nd person singular)
düşünme! = don’t think! (2nd person singular)

Negating in 2nd person plural just requires putting -me/-ma in front of the suffix -in.
Notice, as two vowels cannot put next to each other, again an y has to be inserted between the two suffixes:

yapmayın! = don’t do! (2nd person plural)
çıkmayın! = don’t go out! (2nd person plural)
bozmayın! = don’t break! (2nd person plural)
uyumayın! = don’t sleep! (2nd person plural)
sevmeyin! = don’t love! (2nd person plural)
getirmeyin! = don’t bring! (2nd person plural)
ölmeyin! = don’t die! (2nd person plural)
düşünmeyin! = don’t think! (2nd person plural)

Maybe you noticed that the last suffixes now just are -in or -ın. It is still following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY but as the negation form just is either -ma or -me it can only follow -ın or -in. For example negating uyuyun cannot be “uyumayun” or düşünün cannot be “düşünmeyün” – sounds strange, even for a Turk.


Vocabulary:
açmak = to open; ağlamak = to cry; almak = to take; binmek = to get in, to board; bırakmak = to leave, to let go; bozmak = to break, to change money; çıkmak = to get out; düşünmek = to think; getirmek = to bring; gülmek = to laugh; ölmek = to die; sevmek = to love; uymak = to adapt yourself; vermek = to give; vurmak = to beat someone; yapmak = to make


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 03

Let’s go on with the simple things…

3.1 THE NUMBERS

sıfır = 0
bir = 1
iki = 2
üç = 3
dört = 4
beş = 5
altı = 6
yedi = 7
sekiz = 8
dokuz = 9
on = 10

The next numbers then just are simple combinations:

on bir = 11
on iki = 12
on üç = 13

on dokuz = 19

Now the tenners, also just combinations:

yirmi = 20
yirmi bir = 21
yirmi iki = 22
yirmi üç = 23
yirmi dört = 24

otuz = 30
kırk = 40
elli = 50
altmış = 60
yetmiş = 70
seksen = 80
doksan = 90

yüz = 100
yüz bir = 101
yüz on bir = 111
yüz yirmi bir = 121
iki yüz = 200
üç yüz = 300

bin = 1,000
bin bir = 1,001
bin iki yüz doksan bir = 1,291
on bin = 10,000
yüz bin = 100,000
bir milyon = 1,000,000
iki milyon = 2,000,000
bir milyar = 1 billion

3.2 THE ORDINALS

Learning the numbers also includes the ordinals. For this we need a new suffix:
-(i)nci (the vowel in bracks is just used if the number ends on a consonante).

The suffix depens on the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:

If last vowel is an a or ı the suffix must be -ıncı.
If last vowel is an e or i the suffix must be -inci.
If last vowel is an o or u the suffix must be -uncu.
If last vowel is an ö or ü the suffix must be -üncü.

birinci = 1st
ikinci = 2nd
üçüncü = 3rd
dördüncü = 4th (notice that t is modified to d)
beşinci = 5th
altıncı = 6th
yedinci = 7th
sekizinci = 8th
dokuzuncu = 9th
onuncu = 10th
on birinci = 11th

yirminci = 20th
otuzuncu = 30th
yüzüncü = 100th
milyonuncu = 1,000,000th
milyarıncı = billionth

Let’s have a closer look to dördüncü as you surely wondered why t changes to d. This is because of the “harmony”. There are the so called “Hard Consonantes” k, p and t. Always keeping them sometimes doesn’t sound “harmonic” for turkish ears. For example, it’s easier to speak out dördüncü instead of “dörtüncu”. Try it, which word is more fluently to speak? Exactly… But it’s also a question of feeling. With the time you get used to which sounds more harmonic as you develop a sense for the language.

Modification of “Hard Consonantes” is very usual so better get familiar with it.
But these three letters are not the only “Hard Consonantes”, there are also ç, f, h, s and ş. These consonantes are not getting modified but they harden the following suffix (depending on the suffix also after k, p and t). These will be more understandable in following lessons, but we mention it here, so you have a fair chance to get mentally prepared.

3.3 PLURAL

Forming the plural is almost as easy as in English. You just have to add a -lar or -ler, following the Little Vowel Harmony:
If last vowel is an a, ı, o or u then use -lar.
If last vowel is an e, i, ö or ü then use -ler.

Examples:
araba = the car – arabalar = (the) cars
oda = the room – odalar = (the) rooms
çocuk = the child – çocuklar = (thee) children
pencere = the window – pencereler = (the) windows
kedi = the cat – kediler = (the) cats
(Remember that in Turkish there are no definite articles!)

BUT: If you indicate a quantity you don’t have to use the plural form anymore. What does that mean?

For example you say in English:
one car, two cars, three cars, a undefined quantity of cars… thus if the quantity of cars is more than one, in English you are forced to use the plural. Not so in Turkish:

bir araba = a car
arabalar = (we don’t know how many) cars
iki araba = two cars
üç araba = three cars
etc.

The Turk prefers the simple way and thinks: If anyway the number indicates that I speak about many cars, why forming additionally a plural?

Another hint: You can combine the plural also with names, which can be the description of a complete “clan” or group of people. This can be practical.
Examples:
Mehmetler = the “Mehmets”, which can mean: brothers, sisters, father, mother of Mehmet or his (closest) friends, etc.
Mehmetler gelecek. = The Mehmets (Mehmet and his family) will come.
It’s even not unusual for English ears as it could be translated with: Mehmet and Co.

3.4 “THERE IS” AND “THERE IS NOT”

The expressions “there is” and “there is not” are used very often in Turkish.

var = there is
yok = there is not

That’s it, you don’t need more.

Examples:
You in are shop and would like to buy vegetables. So you ask the vender:
Domates var mı? = Are there tomatoes?
(in this context it means something more like: Do you have tomatoes?)

3.5 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

In lesson 1 you have learned the personal pronouns ben, sen, o, biz, siz, onlar (I, you, he/she/it, we, you (plural), they). By adding another suffix you form the possessive pronouns:

benim = my
senin = your
onun = his/her/its
bizim = our
sizin = your (plural or polite form)
onların = their

Combinating with nouns these possessive pronouns never change.

Examples:
benim araba = my car
senin akraba = your relative
etc.

But usually these possessive pronouns are not used but replaced by another suffix added to the noun. The pronouns itself are used to emphasize that something is YOURS, HIS, MY, etc… So without possessive pronouns it looks as follows:

arabam = my car
araban = your car
arabası = his/her/its car
arabamız = our car
arabanız = your (plural or polite form) car
arabası = their car

Explanation: The possessive suffixes are determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so the complete list looks as follows:
1st person singular: -(i)m / -(ı)m / -(u)m / -(ü)m
2nd person singular: -(i)n / -(ı)n / -(u)n / -(ü)n
3rd person singular: -(s)i / -(s)ı) / -(s)u / -(s)ü
1st person plural: -(i)miz / -(ı)mız / -(u)muz / -(ü)müz
2nd person plural: -(i)niz / -(ı)nız / -(u)nuz / -(ü)nüz
3rd prson plural: -(s)i / -(s)ı) / -(s)u / -(s)ü as in 3rd person singular)

In case the noun ends on a consonate you don’t need the letter in bracks:
arabası (his/her car), kedin (your cat), evimiz (our house), gülünüz (your (plural or polite form) rose), kitapları (his/her books)

In case of a proper name (names, towns, countries) you separate the suffix with an apostrophe:
İngiltere’si… (England’s…), İstanbul’u… (Istanbul’s…), Lale’si… (Lale’s…)

Another example but already anticipated with a genitive construction:
Mehmet’in arabası. = Mehmet’s car. Literally: Of Mehmet his car…(Mehmet’in is a genitive construction)).

In next lesson we are going to deal with all cases. Then this example sentence will be more clear.

By the way: As in English in Turkish proper nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning. Apart from that in you write always with small letters – except on a sentence’s beginning of course!

3.6 FORMING QUESTIONS

3.6.1 Questions with “mi”
With mi you have the possibility of forming simple questions. These are just simple yes/no questions.

Examples:
Gelecek mi? = Will he/she/it come? – This question can be answered with yes or no, “from where” or “to where” doesn’t matter.

Depending on in which person you are asking, mi gets modified:
miyim = referring to myself => Gelecek miyim? = Will I come?
misin = referring to you => Gelecek misin? = Will you come?
mi = referring to him/her/it => Gelecek mi? = Will he/she/it come?
miyiz = referring to us => Gelecek miyiz = Will we come?
misiniz = referring to you (plural) => Gelecek misiniz? = Will you (plural) come?

mi = referring to them ==> Gelecekler mi? = Will they come?

The verb is always in 3rd person and you adjust mi accordingly to the related person (except in 3rd person as mi is already the 3rd person question particle). In plural 3rd person the verb of course has to be modified to plural form, but mi itself remains unchanged.

Important to know that mi is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an a or ı, then mi changes to mı
(=>accordingly mıyım, mısın, mı, mıyız, mısınız, mı)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an e or i, then mi remains unchanged
(=>accordingly miyim, misin, mi, miyiz, misiniz, mi)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an o or u, then mi changes to mu
(=>accordingly muyum, musun, mu, muyuz, musunuz, mu)
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an ö or ü,then mi changes to mü
(=>accordingly müyüm, müsün, mü, müyüz, müsünüz, mü)

Examples:
Sigaran var mı? =Do you have a cigarette? (literally: Is there your cigarette?)
Kaleminiz var mı? = Do you (plural) have a pen? (literally: Is there your pen?)
Kalıyor musun? = Do you stay?
(Note: These examples include already the possessiv pronuns and Continuous Present which will be explained in later. Here it’s just about the mi.)

3.6.2 Other interrogative words

Kim? = Who? – Example: O kim? or Kim o? = Who is this?
Ne? = What? – Example: Ne yapıyorsun? = What are you doing?
Nerede? = Where? – Example: Kitap nerede? = Where is the book?
Nereye? = Where to? – Example: Nereye gidiyorsun? = Where are you going?
Neden? or Niye? = Why? – Example: Neden/Niye gittin? = Why did you go?
Nasıl? = How? – Example: Nasıl dinleniyoruz? = How do we rest?
Hangi? = Which? – Example: Hangi araba? = Welches Auto?
Kaç? or Ne kadar? = How much/many? Example: Fiyatı ne kadar/kaç? = How much is it? (literally: Its price is how much?)


Vocabulary:
açmak = to open; akraba = the relative; araba = the car; çocuk = the child; dinlenmek = to rest, to relax; domates = the tomato; ev = the house; fiyat = the price; gül = the rose; hangi = which; İngiltere = England; kaç = how much; kalem = the pen; kedi = the cat; kim = who; kitap = the book; nasıl = how; ne = what; ne kadar = how much; neden = why; nerede = where; nereye = whereto; niye = why; oda = the room; pencere = the window; sigara = the cigarette; var = there is/existent; yok = there is not/not existent


 

 

 

 

My Grand mother

My Grand mother

0081560
Name: Muslimah
license number: 684/01/06/02/87
Location: Central Lombok
gender: Female
Born: Loteng, 31 December 1956
Address: Batuasak
Village: Labulia
District: Jonggat
the license due to 31 December 1989

(Central Lombok, 20 November 1987)

AL GAZALI: RAUHDAH ATTHALIBIN WA UMDAH ASSALIKIN

AL GAZALI

BAGIAN 1

RAUHDAH ATTHALIBIN WA UMDAH ASSALIKIN

Renungan 1

SELAIN AL-HAQ (ALLAH) ADALAH HIJAB

Ketahuilah, bahwa sibuk dengan sesame mahluk dan nafsu merupakan hijab (penghalang) menuju kepada Allah. Bangga melihat hasil perbuatan adalah perilaku syirik, sebab seluruh perbuatan seorang hamba bila dikaitkan kepada Allah merupakan al-khalq wa al-ijad (ciptaan dan realisasi dari Allah), tapi bila dikaitkan dengan hamba, maka ia merupakan al-Kasb (usaha) ; diberi pahala apabila dalam bentuk ketaantan dan disiksa jika itu maksiat. Ketika seorang hamba melakukan suatu tindakan, maka hal itu didasarkan kekuatan Ilahi dan Al-Kasb (usaha), sebagaimana pendapat Ahl al-Sunnah. Dengna demikian, kekuatan hamba adalah disaat melakukan tindakan, bukan sebelumnya. Ketika hamba melakukan tindakan, disaat itu Allah SWT memberikan kekuatan kepadanya dan itu dinamakan al-Kasb.

Barangsiapa mengaitkan al-masyiah (kehendak) dan al-kasb kepada dirinya sendiri, maka ia termasuk beraliran Qadariyah, dan siapa saja yang meniadakan keduanya atas dirinya, maka ia termaasuk penganut jabariyah. Dan barang siapa yang menisbahkan al-masyiah kepada Allah swt. Dan al-kasb kepada hamba, maka pandangan seperti itu adalha pandangan seorang Sunni yang benar. Membahas pertanyaan ini menyita banyak waktu dan bukan disini tempatnya. Insyaallah akan dibahas kemudian.

Penyimpangan-penyimpangan dari akidah yang benar merupakan akibat kekalahan hati atas kehendak hawa nafsu dan sikap-sikap ta’asshub (fanatic) terhadap madzhab ahli bid’ah. Sebagian imam mengatakan, “Boleh jadi suatu kaum diselamatkan oleh akidah mereka, sekalipun perbuatan mereka sedikit, dan boleh pula suatu kaum akan rusak karena akidanya, sekalipun amal mereka banyak. Cinta harta, gila hormat dan mencintai dunia, ketiganya merupakan racun yang mematikan. Ambisi jabatan dan kemahsyuran akan menumbuhkan sikap takabbur, dan keasyikan duniawi merupakan delusi yang dapat merusak agama.

Sebagian imam berkata, “Jika engkau melakukan perbuatan dan ituu dilihat orang, hendaknya engkau gugurkan perbuatan itu.”

Sikap panjang angan-angan, adalah dapat mencegah amal kebaikan dan menutup jalan kebenaran. Sementara berandai-andai merupakan senjata terampuh milik setan. Dan sifat kikir, mengikuti hawa nafsu, perasaan kagum terhadap diri sendiri, merupakan sebagina dari perilaku yang dapat merusak amal kebajikan.

Makanan yang buruk akan membuat hati menjadi gelap, menimbulkan sifat ‘keras kepala’ serta jauh dari Allah swt. Sedang makanan yang baik akan menerangi hati, menumbuhkan sifat lembut dan kedekatan kepadaNya. Allah swt berfirman:

“Wahai orang-orang yang beriman, makanlah olehmu yang baik-baik dari apa yang kami rezeki-kan kepadamu…” (Qs. Al-Baqarah: 172)

Yang dimaksud al-thayyibat pada ayat diatas adalah al-halal. Oleh sebab itu, makna dan minumlah yang baik, dan tidak mengapa jika untuk mendapatkannya anda harus meninggalkan bangun malam dan puasa siang hari. Memakan makanan yangbaik merupakan dasar penting cara hidup suatu kaum, sedangkan kehidupan nomaden (berpindah-pindah) tidak akan bermanfaat baginya, sampai mereka mengetahui apa yang masuk kedalam perutnya. Oran gyang paling cepat melintasi jembatan (al-shirat) kebanyakan dari kaum wara’ ketika hidup didunia. Dalam sebuah hadits qudsi Allah berfirman, yang artinya:

“Hambaku, jika engkau lapar akan melihat-Ku, dan jika engkau wara’ akan mengnal-Ku, tinggalkanlah (dunia) ini, niscaya engkau akan sampai kepada-Ku….”

Pada hadis qudsiyang lain dinyatakan:

“Adapun mereka yang wara’, aku merasa malu untuk menyiksanya.”

Seorang tokoh sufi megnatakan, “Tuntunlah ilmu pengetahuan, dan biarkan dirimu lapar. Lakukan “al-khumul” serta puasa. Ilmu akan menjadi pelita dan lapar akn mebuahkan hikmah. “Abu Yazid Al-Bustami berutur, “Setiap kali aku lapar karena Allah, setiap kali itu pula aku temui pintu hkmah dalam hatiku yang tidak ku temukan sebelumnya. “Al-khumul adalah ketenangan dan keselamatan. Sementara puasa sendiri memiliki nilai kedermawanan (al-shamadiah) yang tiada bandingnya. Hal ini seperti yang difirmankan Allah sendiri: “Tidak ada yang serupa dengan-Nya.” (Qs. Al-Syura: 11)

Barangsiapa yang memekai beju kedermawanan, maka Allah akan mewariskan ilmu pengetahuan, makrifah dan almusyahadah (penyaksian) kepadanya. Untuk itu Allah berfirman didalam hadis qudsiNya yang artinya:

“Setiap amal perbuatan anak cucu Adam adalah untuknya, kecuali puasa, ia adalah untuk-Ku dan Aku-lah yang akan memberikan pahalanya.”

Di Sisi Allah, ludah orang yang berpuasa lebih harum dari harumnya parfum misk. Sementara itu, sibuk dengan urusan dunia adalah kalahnya hati oleh hawa-nafsu justru akan menimbulkan sifat tercela. Jika berharap bisa dekat dengan Alah, selama belum terrubah sifat-sifat tercela itu oleh sifat-sifat terpujimu.

Sebagian kaum sufi mengatakan, “Selama hamba masih tercemari oleh selain-Nya, maka dia tidak bisa dekat dengan-Nya, kecuali setelah hatinya kosong selain dariNya. “ Dan Ustman ibn Affan berkata, “Andaikan hati itu suci, niscaya tidak akan jemu membaca Al-Qur’an, karena hanya dengan kesucian seseorang akan naik pada tingkat musyahadah terhadap Dzat yang Maha berfirman.”

Ketahuilah, selain Al-Haq adalah hijab. Andaikan bukan karena gelapnya dunia, niscaya cahaya kegaiban akan tampak, jika bukan karena petaka godaan nafsu, niscaya hijab akan terangkat; keau saja bukan karena kendala-kendala, niscaya “hakikat-hakikat” akan tersingkap; seandainya bukan karena penyakit, niscaya akan tinbul kekuatan; andaikan bukan karena keserakahan, niscaya akn timbul mahabbah (rasa cinta); jika bukan karena kekekalan, nicaya ruh-ruh akan terbakarkerinduan; dan andaikan bukan karena kejauhan, niscaya Tuhan itu dapat disaksikan. Di saat hijab tersingkap, runtuhklah seluruh sebab dan hilanglah segala segala kendala. Semua itu dimungkinkan trwujud dengan cara memutuskan hubungan-hubungan  dengan selainNya.

Rahasia yang selama ini terpendam terkuak, matahari telah memancarkan kecemerlangan, dan Andalah kegelapan itu. Anda lah orangnya penghalang hati dari rahasia kegaiban. Dan jika bukan karena Anda, jalan kesejatianpun takkan trtutup. Jjika Anda jauh dari-Nya, hubungan anda akan terputus. Dan itu justru memperpanjang jarak keterbukaan tabirNya (yang terjaga). Perbincangna indah telah dilontarkan, enak didengar dan indah lagam dan lagunya.”

Sebagian kaum sufi berkata,”Apabila Allah menghendaki keburukan seorang hamba, Dia akan menjadikannya pemalas, dan pintu-pintu amalpun tertutup baginya.” Suatu ketika seorang laki-laki dating kepada Muadz            ibn Jabal, dia berkata, “Wahai Muadz, katakana kepadaku bagaimana pendapatmu mengenai dua orang berikut; alah satunya rajin beribadah, banyak amalnya, sedikit dosanya, tetapi dia dihinggapi penyakit. Rasa percaya dirinya lemah dan bahkan diselubungi perasaan ragu.”  Muadz menjawab, “Sungguh keraguannya itu akan menggugurkan seluruh amal yang telh ia lakukan,” Kemudian orang itu berkata, “Bagaimana dengan orang yang kedua, sedikti amal dan banyak dosa, tapi memiliki keyakinan kuat?” Saat itu Muadz  Ibn Jabal diam sejenak dan kemudian berkata, “Demi Allah, jika amal orang pertama tersebut digugurkan oleh keyakinannya yang lemah dan ragu-ragu, maka keyakinan kuat yang dimiliki orang kedua itu pun akan menggugurkan dosanya. “Kemudian Muadz menggandengnya, dan orang yang bertanya tersebut berkata, “Aku belum prnah melihat orang yang lebih megnerti dari orang ini.”

Baby’s born with placenta (through caesar surgery)

Baby's born with placenta (through caesar surgery)

Subhanallah…. this is a great way to show that Allah is Almighty…. the baby was born through caesar surgery and the placenta was stay still so the baby breath in the placenta. Subhanallah 🙂

Sajadah Tua – Sebuah Puisi

Oleh : Fera Komalasari

Disisa kabut semalam

Rinai hujan masih turun

Merayap perlahan membasahi bumi

Ada kerlipan hati yang meronta

Meraung-raung

Terbungkus rindu tak bertepi

Bergelayut bersama hamparan sajadah tua

Air mata berhitung disetiap detik

Bersama butir-butir tasbih

dan bibir basah yang tanpa henti menyebut nama kekasihnya

bermandikan cipak-cipak rakaat yang tak berujung

bersujud….

dimalam bisu

dalam dingin yang menusuk

dihapusnya kanvas dekil penuh noda

dengan dzikir dan wirid-wirid panjang

pada untaian sunyi lagu-lagu hati

ia sebut sebagai do’a….

bersimpuh, memanggil namaNya

air mata tumpah…

merindukan kekasihnya

“Rabbi… Rabbi… Rabbi…

Ampunilah daku, hambaMu

Rabbi… Rabbi… Rabbi….

Aku merindukan-Mu”

Pada kerinduan yang tak bertepi

Ia sematkan satu senyum harapan

Hati yang menjerit

Jiwa yang merindu

Dan bibir basah karena cintanya

Berjumpa dengan kekasihnya

Dan diatas sajadah tua itu

Ia berbicara dengan kekasihnya

Hingga malam yang tak berujung…

REVIEW OF THE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE (DISCOURSE ANALYSIS)

REVIEW OF THE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

Fera Komalasari. E1D010002. Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mataram  University. 2013.

  1. INTRODUCTION

This assignment will critically  discuss about the functions of language.  Those functions are transactional and interactional.

Discourse analysis is the analysis of language in use (Brown and Yule 1983). It also examines how stretches of language become meaningful and unified for their users (Cook 1989). Discourse analysts also consider the relationship between language and the contexts in which it is used and are concerned with the description and analysis of both spoken and written interactions (McCarthy 1991). Its primary purpose is to provide a deeper understanding and appreciation of texts.

That function which language serves in the expression of context we will describe as transactional, and that function involved in exressing social relations and personal attitudes we will discribe as interactional (Brown and Yule 1983).

The transactional view:

Transactional view sees that the speech must be still on context. The use of language is the best way to transfer the information. When the language is used to convey the factual information, it is caled as transactional language. where in the speaker (or writer) mind must be transfer efficiently to the hearer so it is message oriented. E.g  Between the doctor and the patient, it must be made clear what he says. Unless it will be a problem if the message doesn’t deliver well. The patient will not understand and have a trouble in it.

The interactional view

This is the way the function of language is to maintain social relationship. In this case the language use are to negotiate role relationship, peer solidarity and conversation exchange turns. In daily life, it can’t be argued that the interactional language in function is very close to the people.

  1. DISCUSSION

Related to what is interactional and transactional, it can be found that in every day life conversation is tend to use the interactional view. Actually, the transactional is rarely used in daily life.

Thus if a policeman gives directions to a traveler, doctors tells a nurse how to administer medicine to a patient…. (Brown and Yule 1983). In transactional activity, the goal is to transmiting the clear information rather than in interactional information.Chomsky (1965) observed, there is no limited to the number of possible sentence that can be generated from the grammar and lexicon of a language. However, stringing together a random group of sentences that may grammatical allowable doesn’t result in discourse. Discourse must instead be organized in some coherrent way that make sense in context of an interaction. Thus, one important aspect of discourse

analysis is that texts are regarded as wholes, beyond the level of the grammatical sentence. This extended structure—the sequence in which the language occurs and the connections among the units— becomes an object of study in itself. It is also possible for the analysis of a very short text to count as a discourse analysis. Austin (1970, 243), for example, argued that a sign posted in a field and bearing the single word “Bull” could function as a warning. He was interested in how this language constituted a kind of action—the “speech act” of warning. The point is that regardless of its size, if considered as a functional entity, any text can be analyzed as discourse.

Crystal (1987, 116) cites the common concern among dis-course analysts “to see language as a dynamic, social, interactive phenomenon—whether between speaker and listener, or writer and reader.

Based on what Crystal says, the interactional view is more affective in daily life context rather than the transactioanl view. On observing this statement, we can see in social media such as facebook where the messages are generally reply using the interactonal context. In that case, between the writer and the reader generally using it to be more friendly, and not based on massage or what the writer types.

Considering the relationship, people tend to use the interactional function rather than the transactional even though they want to get the clear message to reply or to say it.

  1. CONCLUSION

In daily life, people tend to use the interactional to make their relationship more friendly. The people rarely to use the transactional view because the relationship is more important rather than the message it self.

Referencess:

Dr. Leon James (c)1973.

Discourse Analysis and Second Language Writing. pdf

Mrs. Vrushali Nagarale [ S.N.D.T. College of Home Science, Karve Road, Pune ] Article.

ASSIGNMENT DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

THE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

 

BY                           : Fera Komalasari

Class                      : VI- A

Student number: E1D 010 002

 

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

MATARAM UNIVERSITY

2012-2013

Essay Pendidikan- English Indonesia

Link and Match Concept in Education

 

A. INTRODUCTION

In recent days there are so many critics to the education systems in common says that the extended of study opportunity tends to add unemployment scholar than to add productive employment appropriate with the needs of job. This critic of course have a base of foundation because the census of data seek the interesting tendency that the number of unemployment scholar graduated from the higher education in fact are larger compared to the number of unemployment from the lower graduated (Ace Suryadi, 1993: 134). In other word the number of unemployment scholar are larger compared to the number of senior high school graduate or the lower education.

But, the critic is not absolutely true because style of thinking which is used in order to give the interpretation to the empirical data tend to mislead. The style of thinking now days looks like to the education as the only one variable which explains about unemployment problem. It is a danger style of thinking, not only cause to bringing to bay the education system but also tend to make unemployment as the problem eternally can’t be solve.

According to that circumstance, conceptual explanation to the unemployment scholar problem in recent days have a lot in look with the society, are needed. The conceptual explanation hoped able to reduce the problem in the actual proportion, especially for the function and the settle education system related to employment problem.

State from the assumption that the adding of unemployment grade are caused of the fail of education system, so it is needed an appropriate phenomenological in education and Link and Match concept needed to be lived again in education system.

II. DISCUSSION

  1. Link and Match concept

In the beginning, before the existence of education in school like today, the education runs spontaneously and direct in the days of life. Children of fisherman directly study about the sea and fishery directly following adults to catch the fish. When they studied about the job they had, they all at once learn about value and norms related to their job. Looking at that fact, education in the basic are concrete, spontaneous, and unplanned but directly related to the need of life. In other words in the situation which doesn’t know about school system, the characteristic of education basically always linked and match characteristic.

Link and match concept between education world and employment sector sparked of Prof. Dr. Wardiman need to be lived again. That concept able to reduce the number of unemployment scholar graduate which days by days tend to increase.

Running Link and Match isn’t a simple thing, so that, ideally, there are three components which must move simultaneously to succeed Link and Match program that are college, enterprise, and government. From those components, the use of collage is a must and important requirement. Creativity and intelligence the organizer of collage are determiners factor to the success of that program. There are some important ways must be done by the college to succeed the Link and Match program. The college must have a wanted to do the research to the job place. The purpose is to know the skill what is very needed by it and what competence mostly needed there. According to the research done by one of the college in Indonesia known, the skill (competence) mostly needed are computerization, communicate in English and accountancy.  Beside it, the college must able to predict and anticipate what skills and competency are needed and the technology for ten years future. It is a must that the college make the competence are needed in job world as a teaching course in the college. So, it is hoped that the college graduate have known, minimally in theory about what competence are needed after they graduated.   In the other hand, the college doesn’t need to adapt all of the college material with the need of job world. Because, there must be teaching course beneficial to the student which motivated to continue the study to the higher level. Another important ways, the college must interlaced relation and make the link with lots of enterprise so that they want to be a place work study (apprentice) to the student that will be graduated. With direct apprentice to the real work place, the graduators not only ready theoretically but also practically.

If the Link and Match program run well, the government will have the fortune with the decrease of scholar unemployment. So that, the government must be seriously keep the situation link and mechanism implementation of knowledge from college to the work world so it is hoped Link and Match program will run better and able to brink the beneficial for all side.

  1. Phenomenological to create Link and Match
  2. Social phenomenological

Social phenomenological is a phenomenological base on the need of the society at recent days. This phenomenological focus on the purpose of education and at the distribution of opportunity to get the education (Husni Usman, 2006:56) as the example the application this phenomenological is the application of double system through the foreigh of Link and Match.

  1. Matters pertaining to manpower phenomenological

In this phenomenological the education activities are directed to the effort to fulfill the national need about the employment at the starting basic building off course needs lots of employment from all levels and in various specifications.  In this situation lots of nations hope if education prepare and produce competent employee to building, in agriculture, commerce, industry, etc (Jusuf Enoch, 1992:90). For that over planning of education must try to make approximation amount and the quality of employee needed by every national building activity. In this case the over planning of education can make convince that facility supplying and direction of student really based on the approximation amount that need of employee. But the method to approximation the need of employee needs to be made according to the importance and the state condition. One of the methods for instance not only observes the needs but also examine various kinds of training employee needed by state based on balance ratio, e.g. the comparison between engineer and expert technician.

  1. Education and Employee

The function of education as producer of driving force is tends to match with Krendensialisme theory. Education system must able to open the wide sky to the product employee especially to open the new job. The education must have to produce the employee which able to play up the potential of society to produce the things and service included the way it is marketed. This ability is very important in order to expand job and trade. So that, the graduate of education system not only hinging on new job available in which is restricted, but develop Potential job opportunity.  One of the reason unemployment in the face of scholar graduate is the low education quality in Indonesia. It impacts to the low quality of graduate so that it doesn’t match to demand and requirement of the society. But is it is seen far more, on the side of employment request, unemployment scholar can be seen as disabilities of economy and job market to absorb unemployment scholar which comes together in accumulation amount.

As the unemployment solution, lots of strategy and policy can be taken, e.g. every unemployment attain to have a proper job to the human means productive appropriate with section 27 subsection 2 UUD 1945 with all participation of Indonesian society. More make the tackling of unemployment as a national commitment. So that it t needs two policy that is macro and micro (special). Micro police can be translated in some points: first, mindset development and unemployment knowledge. Go from the knowledge that every human has a potential in his/her self but often they don’t aware and develop optimally. So that, it is hoped every individual able to actualize his/her best potential and able to make a better life, valuable, and quality for his/her self or to the society. Mature individual, dynamic and creative have future vision and mission, brave to take challenge and have the right mindset. It is a basic demand in globalization and information which is very competitive in recent days and in the future era.

Must be believe by every people, the real success comes from the mental attitude to be brave in thinking and take steps obviously, honestly, maturely, and professional. This policy can be implemented to be a national movement through cooperation with competent training for that.

Secondly, developing the regions, especially less developed region as priority by build transportation facility and communication. It will open the job square to the unemployment in various types or levels.

Third, completing the curriculum and national education system. Education system and curriculum determine education quality (sisdiknas). So that, Sisdiknas needs to evaluate  in order to rich education purpose optimally. The development of national education system need to be reconstruct. Perestorika shtem higher education include some aspects such as the balance of study program and raising quality.

The fourth, prohibit dissolution work relationship.

III. CONCLUSION

Link and Match concept is a concept between education institutions in link with job vacancy by this relation so that the education as job producer able to arrange the relationship with industrial world and trade world. This concept needs to be implemented in Indonesian context.

Terjemahan:

Konsep Link dan Match dalam pendidikan

Saat ini begitu banyak kritik terhadap system pendidikan yang pada ummnya mengatakan bahwa perluasan kesempatan belajar cenderung meningkatkan sarjana pengangguran dari pada meningkatkan pekerja produktif yang sepadan dengan kesempatan kerja. Kritik ini tentu saja memiliki dasar karena sensus membuktikan kecenderungan yang menarik bahwa jumlah pengangguran yang lulus dari pendidikan tinggi sebenarnya lebih besar jika dibandingkan dengan jumlah pengangguran dari lulusan bawah (Ace Suryadi, 1993: 134). Dengan kata lain jumlah pengangguran yang sarjana lebih besar jika dibandingakan dengan jumlah pengangguran yang lulus dari sekolah menengah atas atau pendidikan yang lebih rendah.

Tapi, kritik ini tidak secara absolut benar karena gaya berfikir yang digunakan untuk memberika interpretasi terhadap data empiris cenderung menyesatkan. Gaya berfikir saat ini terhadap pendidikan terlihat hanya satu variable yang menjelaska tentang masalah pengangguran. Itu merupakan gaya berfikir yang berbahaya, tidak hanya mengakibatkan system pendidikan tetapi juga cenderung untuk membuat pengagguran sebagai masalah kekal yang tidak bisa diselesaikan.

Berdasarkan keadaan itu, penjelasan konseptual terhadap sarjana pengagnguran saat ini harus dipandang terhadap masyarakat, sangat dibutuhkan. Penjelasan konseptual diharapkan dapat mengurangi masalah dalam proporsi yang sebenarnya, khususnya fungsi dan penyelesaian system pendidikan yang berhubungan dengan masalah pengangguran.

Melangkah dari asumsi bahwa peningkatan jumlah pengnagguran disebakna oleh gagalnya system pendidikan, maka dibutuhkanlah pendekatan yang tepat dalam pendidikan dan konsep link and match perlu dihirupkan lagi dalam sistem pendidikan.

II. DISKUSI

  1. Konsep Link dan Match

Sejak awal, sebelum keberadaan pendidikan disekolah sepeeti saat ini, pendidikan berjalan secara spontan dan langsung dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Anak nelayan langsung mempelajari tentang laut dan perikanan langsung mengikuti orang dewasa untuk menangkap ikan. Ketika mereka mempelajari tentang pekerjaan yang mereka miliki, mereka sekaligus belajar tentang nilai dan norma yang berhubungna dengan pekerjaan mereka. Melihat kenyataan ini, pendidikan pada dasarnya nyata, spontan, dan tak terencana tetapi secara langsung berhubungan dengan kebutuhan hidup. Dengan kata lain dalam situasi yang tidak diketahui tentang sistem sekolah, karakteristik pendidikan pada dasarnya selalu memiliki karakter berhubungan dan sesuai.

Konsep Link and Match antara dunia pendidikan dan sektor pekerjaan yang dicetuskan oleh Prof. Dr. Wardiman perlu dihidupkan lagi. Konsep itu dapa mengurangi jumlah penganggurna yang lulus dari perguruan tinggi dimana hari demi hari cenderung meningkat.

Menjalankan konsep link and match bukanlah perkara yang mudah, karena itu, secara ideal, ada tiga komponen yang harus berpindah secara serempak untuk mensukseskan program link and match yaitu perguruan tinggi, perusahaan, dan pemerintah. Dari komponen-kmponen itu, penggunaan perguruan tinggi adalah sebuah keharusan dan syarat yang penting. Kreativitas dan intelegensi organisator dari perguruan tinggi adalah factor penentu terhadap kesuksesan program itu. Ada beberapa jalan penting yang harus dilakukan oleh perguruan tinggi untuk mensukseskan program link and match. Perguruan tinggi harus memiliki keinginan untuk melakukan riset ke tempat lapangan kerja.  Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui keterampilan yang sangat dibutuhkan dan komponen apa yang sebagian besar dibutuhkan disana. Menurut riset yang dilakukan oleh salah satu perguruan tinggi di Indonesia diketahui, keterampilan yang sangat dibutuhkan adalah komputerisasi, berkomunikasi dalam bahasa Inggris dan akuntansi. Disamping itu, perguruan tinggi harus dapat memprediksi dan mengantisipasi keterampilan apa dan kompetensi apa yang dibutuhkan dalam dunia kerja sebagai bahan ajar dalam perguruan tinggi. Jadi, diharapkan lulusan perguruan tinggi telah mengetahui, minimal secara teori tentang kompetensi apa yang dibutuhkan setelah mereka lulus. Disisi lain, perguruan tinggi tidak perlu mengadaptasi semua materi ajar dengan kebutuhan dunia kerja karena pasti ada materi ajar yang bermanfaat terhadap siswa yang termotivasi untuk melanjutkan pendidikan ke jenjang yang lebih tinggi. Jalan penting lain, perguruan tinggi harus menjalin hubungan dan membuat hubungan dengan banyak perusahaan karena itu mereka ingin menjadi temat untuk belajar dan bekerja (magang) terhadap mahasiswa yang akan lulus. Dengan magang langsung didunia kerja yang nyata, para sarjana tidak hanya siap secara teori melainkan secara praktik.

Jika program Link and match berjalan baik, pemenrintah akan beruntung dengan berkurangnya pengangguran yang sarjana. Karena itu, pemerintah harus secara serius menjega situasi impelemtasi link dan mekanisme pengetahuan dari perguruan tinggi kedalam dunia kerja karena itu diharapkan konsep Link and match akan berjalan lebih baik dan dapat membawa keuntungna dari segala sisi.

  1. Pendekatan untuk menciptakan Link and Match
    1. Pendekatan social

Pendekatan social adalah sebuah pendekatan yang berdasarkan pada kebutuhan masyarakat saat ini. Pendekatn ini berfokus pada tujuan pendidikan dan pada distribusi kesempatan untuk mendapatkan pendidikan (Husni Usman, 2006: 56) Sebagai contoh aplikasi pendekatna ini adalah aplikasi dari sistem ganda melalui kebijakan Link and Match.

  1. Berbagai hal yang menyinggung pendekatan tenaga kerja

Dalam pendekatna ini aktifitas pendidikan langsung terhadap upaya untuk mengisi kebutuhan nasional tenaga kerja sebagai bangunan awal tentu saja membutuhkan banyak pekerja dari semua level dan dalam sperifikasi yang bermacam-macam. Dalam situasi ini banyak Negara mengharapkan jika pendidikan menyiapkan dan menghasilkan ekerja yang kompeten untuk membangun, dalam agrikultur, komersial, industry dan sebagainya (Jusuf Enorch, 1992: 90). Dari itu melalui perencanaan pendidikan harus dicoba untuk membuat jumlah perkiraan dan kualitas pekerja yang dibutuhkan dari setiap aktifitas pembangunan nasioanl. Pada kasus ini perencanaan pendidikan dapat meyakinkan bahwa prsediaan fasilitas dan petunjuk dari siswa benar-benar menurut jumlah perkiraan kebutuhan tenaga kerja. Tetapi metode perkiraan kebutuhan tenaga kerja perlu dibuat menurut kepetingan dan kondisi Negara. Salah satu dari metode contohnya tidak hanya engobservasi kebutuhan tetapi juga menguji berbagai jenis training pekerja yang dibutuhkan pleh Negara berdasarkan rasio keseimbangan, contohnya perbandingna antara insinyur dan ahli teknis.

  1. Pendidikan dan tenaga kerja

Fungsi pendidikan sebagai penghasil tenaga pengemudi cenderung cocok dengan teori Krndensialisme. Sistem pendidikan harus mampu untuk membuka bermacam-macam produk tenaga kerja khususnya untuk membuka lapangan kerja baru. Pendidikan harus mampu memproduksi tenaga kerja yang mampu bermain dengan potensi masyarakat untuk memproduksi barang-barang dan jasa termasuk pemasarannya. Kemampuan ini sangat penting untuk perluasan lapangna kerja dan perdanganan. Karena itu, lulusan sistem pendidikan tidak hanya bergantung pada pekerjaan baru yang tersedia dimana itu sangat terbatas, tetapi mengembangkan kesempatan kerja yang potensial. Salah satu alas an pengangguran yang dihadapi oleh pengangguran lulusan perguruan tinggi adalah rendahnya kualitas pendidikan di Indonesia. Itu berimbas pada rendahnya kualitas lulusannya karena itu itu tidak cocok dengan permintaan dan keperluan masyarakat. Apakah itu dilihat lebih jauh, dari sisi permintaan tenaga kerja, pengangguran dari perguruan tinggi dapat dilihat dari ketidakmampuan ekonomi dan pasar kerja untuk menyerap pengangguran dari lulusan prguruan tinggi yang dating bersamaan jumlah pengumpulan.

Sebagai solusi pengangguran, banyak strategi dan kebijakan yang dapat diambil, contohnya setiap pengangguran sebaiknya memiliki pekerjaan yang cocok yang cocok dengan pasal 27 ayat 2 UUD 1945 dari semua masyarakat Indonesia. Lebih dari itu buat pemberantasan penganguran sebagai komitmen nasional. Karena itu, membutuhkan dua keijakan yaitu kebijakan makro dan mikro (khusus). Kebijakan mikro dapat diterjemahkan kedalam beberapa poin: pertama, pola pikir pengembangan dan pengetahuan pengangguran. Beranjak dari pengetahuan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki potensi dalam dirinya akan tetapi mereka sering tidak menyadarinya dan mengembangkannya secara optimal. Karena itu, diharapkan setiap individu dapat mengaktualisasikan potensi terbaiknya dan dapt membuat kehidupan yang lebih baik, berharga, dan berkualitas bagi diri mereka atau bagi masyarakat. Individu yang dewasa, dinamis dan kreatif memiliki visi dan misi kedepannya, berani untuk mengambil kesempatan dan memiliki minset yang benar. Itu merupakan tuntutan dasar dalam globalisasi dan informasi yang sangat kompetitif saat ini pada era kedepannya.

Harus dipercayai oleh setiap orang, sukses yang sesungguhnya dating dari sikap mental untuk berani dalam berfikir dan melangkah sungguh-sungguh, jujur, matang, dan professional. Kebijakan ini dapat diimpelemtasikan menjadi pergerakan nasioanal melalui kerjasama dengan training yang kompeten.

Kedua, mengembangan daerah, khususnya daerah yang terbelakang sebagai prioritas dengan membangun fasilitas transportasi dan komunikasi. Itu akan membuka lapangan pekerjaan terhadap pengangguran dalam benbagai jenjang.

Ketiga, melengkapi kurikulum dan sistem pendidikan nasional. Sistem pendidikan dan kurikulum menentukan kualitas  pendidikan (sisdiknas). Karena itu, sisdiknas perlu mengevaluasi untuk tujuan pendidikan secara optimal. Pengembangan sistem pendidikan nasional perlu di rekonstruksi. Perestroika shtem pendidikan tingi mencangkup beberapa aspek sepeti keseimbangan program studi dan peningkatan kualitas.

Keempat, melarang PHK.

III. Kesimpulan.

Konsep Link and Math adalah sebuak konsep antara institusi pendidikan yang berhubungna dengan lapangna kerja dimana dengan hubungna ini pendidikan sebagai pencipta pekerjaan dapat mengatur hubungan dengan dunia industry dan dunia perdagangan. Konsep ini perlu diimplementasikan dalam konteks Indonesia.