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Critical Review of An Examination on the Problems Existing in the Teaching and Learning of Oral English

Critical Review of

An Examination on the Problems Existing in the Teaching and Learning

 of Oral English

Yu Wang

Shenzen University

That article consist of the problems existing in the teaching and learning of oral English. It begins from the introduction through literature reviews. How far the distinction between knowledge and skill can be understood that how the learners learn to speak the second language? Are that fluency and accuracy concept work better in learn foreign language? Cassual conversations as a kind of talk and authentic data that gathered from the dialy introduction? What are the strategies in learning oral English in Literature Review in learning of ESL/EFL oral English? What is the factor affecting adoult EFL learners oral communication? How are The issues that make people ask on how ESL/EFL students master their ability to speak fluently and accurately?  How are The fact that student of ESL oral English speaking countries that the result not represent and solve some of the common problem of EFL students who are learning in non native situation? What about the implication for the pedagogical dimension? In the end Yu Wang fail to find the answer of the problem in the teaching and learning of ESL/EFL oral English.

The greatest problem in Yu Wang article that he deal with is the factor affecting adault learners oral communication is age as one of the most factor of succes or failure in second language learning (p.48). actually, age is not the only one common factor that contribute in success or failureness of the learners. Aptitude, second language level, interest, the time the learners can devote to language learning, the size of the group with whom he practise the language and the cultur group to which he belongs to are the common factors too that affect the learning process.

Yu Wang only focus on speaking side without considering the other aspect or the goal of communication. He begin the article without a cleargoal of language. In learning a foreign language, the learner not only learn speaking but also the other skills like reading, writing, and listening. It’s arguable that speaking that he make it to be major thing is a rela ofgoal of the language since the other skill must be learnt. Before speak, the language learners must be listen first  until they can produce the words. It takes a long time to gathering the vocabulary. In learning vocabulary, the learner needs to read lots of books. After they can get much vocabulary through listening and reading, they can produce the words better. So the problem that Yu Wang deliver about the speaking in taching and learning of ESL/EFL oral English as auresolved problem is really get a blind alley in his papper.

The small factors that make it to be big bump that are the fluent and accurate speech, seems to be the greats problem over all of the bad immage of learning a foreign language in non native speakerland. The question arising here that is how effective that fluence and accurate speach to handle the communication goal in speaking? Every body should agree that the fluent and accurate speach are connect with grammar mastery. Somehow, the witer doesn’t put the grammar  aspect in his article. Concreate, in teaching grammar through Grammar Translation Methode, language learners are not expected to be able to use the target language for communication. No class time is alocated to allow language learners to produce their own sentences and little time is spent on oral practise. The emphasis on achieving correct grammar with little regard for the free aplication and production of speach are the weakness in grammar translation methode. Therefore GTM doesn’t handle the target communication- to use the second language fluently and accurately.

If Yu Wang focus just for speaking, then in class teaching teacher should use direct methode. Here the language is seen as a set of grammatical rules and its vocabulary in situations. So, the learners should speak fluently and accurately. Through this way, the conclusion that Yu Wang give is brooken.

Nontheless, case studies on how learners,especially those who are studiying in non native situations, reach fluency with accurecy are limited in quantity (p.50).

In fact, in speaking case with fluency and accuracy that’s all back to the method that teacher used. More cleaver the teacher teach, more cleaver the students will be. Through this method, the accuracy and fluency can be account througn grammar corrections. Grammar is taugh by sittuation and through inductive process. The most important that is language learners learn the target language in class most of the time.

Considering two aspect above, it shouldn’t provoke questions and discussion on how ESL/EFL student master their ability to speak fluently and accurately. Pronounciation is essencial since mispronounciacing a word may hinder communication. Again, Yu Wang doesn’t put pronounciation aspect on his article. Farmore, grammar is learned after the learners are able to use the language. This leads to grammar teaching in an inductive way. The teacher should provide many examples. There is no explisit grammar rule given by the teacher but vocabulary exercises and systematic grammar drills may be given. That’s all related to communication. The students are not asked about the knowledge of the language but they are asked to use the language. It’s realted to kowledge and skills (p.47 p2) about the distinction between knowledge about a language and skill in using it. In fact, in class room activities teacher not merely speak with the second language but he or she sometimes use the first language to their language.

Skill and knowledge are something that really different from all of the aspect. How does teacher teach in class influence the student to use the second language or they just know the knowledge about the foreign language that they learnt, that’s are an option to the teacher.

In conclusion, the problem in oral communication can be handled by the teacher it self. As long as the teacher teach and use the righ method to make the student are able to speak fluently and accurately, it’s not a serrious problem in teaching and learning a foreign language.

DRAMA SCRIPT THE LOTTERY

THE LOTTERY

DRAMA SCRIPT

 

In the middle of traditional market, two young women were walking together. They looked for something but didn’t get what they were looking for.  They were walking through a store and stopped by a man and a lady which were sales marketing.

Sales man: “Good day Miss, we are so sorry for disturbing your activity. But would you like to see the lottery may be you are lucky today.”

(Talk with soft tune and flattering. He offered lotteries in front of two young women, but seems he specialize it to that women with long straight hair, sweet and beautiful eyes)

Laura     :”Audrey!!!” (Look for Aura beside her. Actually she asked whether the answer yes or no but Aura just silence)

Salesman:”Oh….come on…. These are the lottery. Just choose one lottery; open it and see… maybe this is your lucky day. Here we go” (offered the lottery to Laura. The green lottery looked so charm)

Laura     :”Ok” (doubted)

Sales girl: “Oh Miss, look! I think this is your day. Match. Is this number are in the list of the chosen number?

Laura     :”57686797. Oh yes, I got it” (smiled)

Salesman:”Wow… u got it miss, really. 57686797. So now, you will get a door prize. It’s free, free miss, free. Just for lucky people. But the door prize is upstairs. We should come up now.” (Smiled enthusiastic to Laura)

Laura     :”Really? Free door prize? Hahaha… Audrey, what do you think?” (Looked to Audrey, she was very happy and full of smiling)

Audrey :”Oh…”

(Answered but looked to the other place. Might be she thought that Laura was lucky today. She closed her mouth tightly and took near her arms closely, look around the market. Calm face)

Laura     :”ok… lets go then”

They walked in the middle of narrow way to the stairs in the corner of the market. Laura looks so happy. Her smile blossomed. Audrey just silent closed her mouth. They arrived to the sore in which the really lottery were.

Sales girl: “Sit down please. Ok let me introduce you about the lottery. What’s your name miss?”

Laura     :”My name is Laura Florida”

Sales girl:”And what about you miss, what’s your name?”

Audrey:”Audrey Stephaney Johnson”

Sales girl:”OK Miss, the previous lottery was for the door prize. You will get the door prize after you follow these steps. Listen, here we have some product. It’s about 20 products, as you can see in this paper. But the crossed product was taken by the fortunate people before. Look, this, this and this have been crossed. These are the edge about 1 product. You have to choose 4 products and then it will be looted again. You will choose the lottery, and what’s written down in the lottery will be yours. But you have to pay the deposit payment before 12 pound sterling. These products are really cheap. You just need to pay 15-25 percent from the original price. Choose the product, and who want to take the lottery? And take a sign down this paper.” (Explained and went to outside for awhile)

Laura:”Let me madam… Audrey, what do you think? Should I take this product? I work on Beauty Salon so I need this product, but it’s too expensive.”

Audrey:”It’s up to you. What do you think about this product? It’s really cheap. I think we need it to go to school. Don’t you think so”

Laura:”Yea, 15 pound sterling… great Wagon.  Hahaha, I hope that I can get the wagon Audrey, oh really” (full of hoping)

Audrey:”What else? You need two products again.”

Laura:”Ok what about this and this?” (Pointed the picture)

Audrey:”Are you sure? That’s too expensive darling. But I think this is your lucky day” (smiled but didn’t sure”

Laura:”Yea, I hope so. I really hope that I’ll get the wagon, so we can go together to school every day by the wagon. We don’t need to walk 4 kilometers again. Hmmm… I feel like Queen of England if I get it.”

Audrey:”Really… this will be your Lucky day”

The sales man came in to the room.

Salesman:”Have you choose it?”

Laura:”yes I have”

Salesman:”I think that both of you still school or work aren’t you?”

Laura:”I’m school”

Audrey:”But she works in Beautiful Salon too”

Salesman:”Oh great… you are so cleaver miss Laura… I think you are so good in manage your time”

Laura:”Oh, thanks”

Sales man:”Ok… I’ll confirm your application to my boss. So where are your deposit payments? Remember, there is no compulsory in this way. We will give your money back if you don’t lucky in get one of the four product. But the door prize is in the lottery that you will choose now. You got it? Sign here miss” (Received the money from Laura)

Laura:”Yea, I got it”

Audrey:”Are you sure? That money is for your fee tuition. If you gave it, then you can’t follow next semester. I think your parents will not give you money again.” (Whispered to Laura with calm voice)

The salesman went into the secret room, took the lottery and went out to the place before. He bought such a lot of lottery.

Sales man:”If you still doubt, you can see our product down the stairs”

Laura:”I have seen it an hour ago. I know.” (Unpattient to choose the lottery)

Sales boy:”Now open it carefully.”

Laura:”Salon beauty product and the door prize are shoes. What?” (Looked disappointed)

Sales boy:”wow… Look you got it miss, congratulation. Wow… ok. 100 pound sterling, so the edge just 85 pound sterling. If you don’t have money now, you can pay it latter in terms of 2 years. But the product can u brings it home after the payment is finish.”

Laura:”What do you think?” (Disappointed deeply and looked seriously now)

Audrey:”Ok.. I think you need it so much to your job guys. Just take it. You can pay it latter in term of two years.” (Smiled to Laura and made she believed)

Laura:”Ok, even I don’t have money may be my boss would like to get this product. I’ll inform my boss latter. Ok.”

Sales man:”This is your door prize, the shoes. Thank you misses.”

Laura:”You are welcome.” (Smiled disappointed)

They went out from the room. There was a woman standing out of the store.

Lisa:”What have you done here?” (Seriously)

Laura:”The lottery.”

Lisa:”What?  What have you thought? They were deceived you. Don’t you realize it from the first?”

Laura:”What do you mean? Ok Lisa, introduce, this is Audrey my best friend in school now.”

Lisa:”I’m Lisa.” (Shaking hand with Audrey)

Audrey:”Audrey. What do you mean? How do you know that? How do you know that we are here?” (Wandered)

Lisa:”I’ve seen you an hour ago come in to this store. I tried to call you. But it didn’t work. My friend 2a weeks ago was deceived too”

Laura:”Deceived? How come?” (Asked like didn’t believed)

Lisa:”They said they would give my friend a great product, water pump. My friend paid 120 pound sterling. And guess what did she got? A bad water pump. It didn’t match like what they have explained.” (Explained with angry felt)

Laura:”Pardon?” Oh God, but I’ve seen the product. I’ve seen. I think I should offer it to my boss.” (Wandered how could it be)

Lisa:”Your boss? Oh, what a crazy think. Listen, if you give your boss to know then she pays it, and if the product is bad product then she will entrust you. Why? Because you give her a bad product, you deceived her. Enough for you to deceive don’t deceive anybody again. My friend really disappointed with the product. Somehow, it couldn’t be returned again. She loosed her money for noting.” (Pressed her words to make Laura believed)

Laura:”Oh God… I’ve been deceived. So what I should do now? Audrey, help me!” (Tearing, looked to Audrey and Lisa)

Lisa:”Don’t pay the edge… Ok honey, be patient. I should go now.” (Hugged Laura with full of attention)

Laura:”Ok… take care”

Audrey:”What?” (Gape)

Laura:”What I should do Audrey? Help me!!! I loosed my money. I need that money. Sure, when I was in that store it felt like I was under controlled, hypnotized, unconscious felt. What I should do now?” (Crying, holed Audrey’s hand, didn’t believed what have been happened

Audrey:”I think we should tell the Queen. This is deceiving.”

Laura:”Impossible, I’ve sign it. They have it.”

Audrey:”So, what? I don’t know. Let’s go then”

 

 

 

BY:

NAME: FERA KOMALASARI

SN          : E1D 010 002

Year       : IVA

 

ENGLISH EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY OF MATARAM

 2012

 

Ode to a Nightingale Fifth Stanza Analysis

A.INTRODUCTION

5th stanza ‘Ode to a Nightingale’

I cannot see what flowers are at my feet,

Nor what soft incense hangs upon the boughs,

But, in embalmed darkness, guess each sweet

Wherewith the seasonable month endows

The grass, the thicket, and the fruit-tree wild;

White hawthorn, and the pastoral eglantine;

Fast fading violets cover’d up in leaves;

And Mid-May’s eldest child,

The coming musk-rose, full of dewy wine,

The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves.

Primary considerable option in ’ode to a nightingale’ is Keats’ perception of the conflicted nature of human life which will be analyzed further in chapter 2.

Focusing on 5th stanza, the poet has left the physical world and has entered a world where he sees not with his natural eyes, but with heavenly eyes. The poet try to internalize the amazing element of nature when he wrote the poem by described it by using another sense to see the nature which is in smell and touch.

For the first, we will introduced the 5th stanza by analyzed the literal meaning of the words in this stanza. Then, we will interpret this stanza according to heavenly eyes of the poet in next session.

According to literal meaning of this stanza, we can conclude that this is important part of ‘ode to a nightingale’ because of it introduces the setting of the poem when it made in the progress which is in the garden in spring season at mid-May.

Setting of place is in the garden which is identified by flowers on the grass, boughs, the grass, the thicket, and the fruit-tree wild, white hawthorn, the pastoral eglantine, fading leaves, etc. mid-May which is identified by the sentence ‘and mid-may’s eldest child’. Spring season which is identified by musk-rose, fading leaves, murmurous haunt of flies, summer eves, etc. in the spring season, the musk-rose, which is a mid-May flower, has not yet bloomed. At the last sentence in5th stanza, the word ‘on summer eves’, by open dictionary, we know that it is the changing time from spring to summer, but in the main line it is at spring season.

There are some words in this stanza which is possibly have non literal meaning that can give important clue to which the poet want to sent the idea given in this stanza.

‘cannot see the flowers’ which possibly as symbol of the low ability of the poet to see surrounding by his weak eyes until he use his other sense in smell and touch. His weak eyes also possible to refer to humans changing level of age from adult to old. It is also possible as sign of death since eyes used to see the world.

‘embalmed darkness’ which is defined as fragrant, preserved body is possible to death since we symbolized death in darkness and also possible to describe the poets’ addictive  to the beauty and natural conflict of the element of nature.

‘summer eves’ which define as season changing is possible  to symbolized the changing of age, from adult which is identified by musk-rose to old which is identified  by dewy wine which is cold, the time humans can not produce anything, the time which is naturally bring us  to death.

Back to first line in the 5th stanza, based on literal meaning we indentified that because of the poet cannot see in the darkness, he must rely on his other senses. Then the questions raise, what senses does he rely on? Are his experience and his sensations intense? For himself only or for the reader also?

Even in this refuge, death is present; what words hint of death? Do these hints help to prepare for stanza VI? Was death anticipated in stanza 1 by the vague suggestions in the words ‘Lethe’, ‘hemlock’,  ‘drowsy numbness’, ‘poisonous’, and ‘shadowy darkness’?

The answer of these questions might be find in the next session.

 

 

 

 

 

A Hounted House Analysis

Analysis of short story

Title                             : A Haunted House

Author                         : Virginia Woolf (1884-1941)

Word count                 : 710

First Published            : 1921

Type of Plot                : Fantasy

Time of Work              : The early 1900’s

Setting                         : An English house and garden

Characters                   : A living couple, a ghost couple

Genres                         : Short fiction, Fantasy

Subjects                       : Memory, Love or romance, Marriage, Ghosts or apparitions, England or English people, Afterlife, Houses, mansions, or manors

Locales                        : England

Paragraph                    : 10

 

 

A Haunted House

By Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)

Whatever hour you woke there was a door shutting. From room to room they went, hand in hand, lifting here, opening there, making sure–a ghostly couple.

“Here we left it,” she said. And he added, “Oh, but here tool” “It’s upstairs,” she murmured. “And in the garden,” he whispered. “Quietly,” they said, “or we shall wake them.”

But it wasn’t that you woke us. Oh, no. “They’re looking for it; they’re drawing the curtain,” one might say, and so read on a page or two. “Now they’ve found it,’ one would be certain, stopping the pencil on the margin. And then, tired of reading, one might rise and see for oneself, the house all empty, the doors standing open, only the wood pigeons bubbling with content and the hum of the threshing machine sounding from the farm. “What did I come in here for? What did I want to find?” My hands were empty. “Perhaps its upstairs then?” The apples were in the loft. And so down again, the garden still as ever, only the book had slipped into the grass.

But they had found it in the drawing room. Not that one could ever see them. The windowpanes reflected apples, reflected roses; all the leaves were green in the glass. If they moved in the drawing room, the apple only turned its yellow side. Yet, the moment after, if the door was opened, spread about the floor, hung upon the walls, pendant from the ceiling–what? My hands were empty. The shadow of a thrush crossed the carpet; from the deepest wells of silence the wood pigeon drew its bubble of sound. “Safe, safe, safe” the pulse of the house beat softly. “The treasure buried; the room . . .” the pulse stopped short. Oh, was that the buried treasure?

A moment later the light had faded. Out in the garden then? But the trees spun darkness for a wandering beam of sun. So fine, so rare, coolly sunk beneath the surface the beam I sought always burned behind the glass. Death was the glass; death was between us, coming to the woman first, hundreds of years ago, leaving the house, sealing all the windows; the rooms were darkened. He left it, left her, went North, went East, saw the stars turned in the Southern sky; sought the house; found it dropped beneath the Downs. “Safe, safe, safe,” the pulse of the house beat gladly. “The treasure yours.”

The wind roars up the avenue. Trees stoop and bend this way and that. Moonbeams splash and spill wildly in the rain. But the beam of the lamp falls straight from the window. The candle burns stiff and still. Wandering through the house, opening the windows, whispering not to wake us, the ghostly couple seeks their joy.

“Here we slept,” she says. And he adds, “Kisses without number.” “Waking in the morning–” “Silver between the trees–” “Upstairs–” ‘In the garden–” “When summer came–” ‘In winter Showtime–” “The doors go shutting far in the distance, gently knocking like the pulse of a heart.

Nearer they come, cease at the doorway. The wind falls, the rain slides silver down the glass. Our eyes darken, we hear no steps beside us; we see no lady spread her ghostly cloak. His hands shield the lantern. “Look,” he breathes. “Sound asleep. Love upon their lips.”

Stooping, holding their silver lamp above us, long they look and deeply. Long they pause. The wind drives straightly; the flame stoops slightly. Wild beams of moonlight cross both floor and wall, and, meeting, stain the faces bent; the faces pondering; the faces that search the sleepers and seek their hidden joy.

“Safe, safe, safe,” the heart of the house beats proudly. “Long years–” he sighs. “Again you found me.” “Here,” she murmurs, “sleeping; in the garden reading; laughing, rolling apples in the loft. Here we left our treasure–” Stooping, their light lifts the lids upon my eyes. “Safe! Safe! Safe!” the pulse of the house beats wildly. Waking, I cry “Oh, is this your buried treasure? The light in the heart.

 

 

 

Dialogue in “A Haunted House”

The Narrator    : whatever hour you woke there was a door shutting. From room to room they went, hand in hand, lifting here, opening there, making sure—a ghost couple.

Woman ghost  : here we left it

Man ghost       : oh, but here too!

Woman ghost  : it’s upstairs

Man ghost       : and in the garden

Man ghost and woman ghost  : quietly or we shall wake them.

The narrator     : but it wasn’t that you woke us. Oh, no.

Woman ghost  : they are looking for it; they are drawing the curtain.

The narrator     : one might say, and so read on a page or two.

Man ghost       : now they had found it,

The narrator     : one would be certain, stopping the pencil on the margin. And then, tired of reading, one might rise and see for oneself, the house all empty, the doors standing open, only the woods pigeons bubbling with content and the hum of the threshing machine sounding from the farm.

Man ghost       : what did I come in here for? What did I want to find? My hands were empty.

Woman ghost  : perhaps its upstairs then?

The narrator     : the apples were in the loft. And so down again, the garden still as ever, only the book had slipped into the grass.

But they had found it in the drawing room. Not that one could ever see them. The windowpanes reflected apples, reflected roses; all the leaves were green in the grass. If they moved in the drawing room, the apple only turned its yellow side. Yet, the moment after, if the door was opened, spread about the floor, hung upon the walls, pendant from the ceiling—what? My hands were empty. The shadow of a thrush crossed the carpet; from the deepest wells of silence the wood pigeon drew its bubble of sound.

The pulse of the house            : safe, safe, safe. The treasure buried; the room…

The narrator                 : oh, was that the buried treasure?

The moment later the light had faded. Out in the garden then? But the trees spun darkness for a wandering beam of sun. So fine, so rare, coolly sunk beneath the surface the beam I sought always burned behind the glass. Death was the glass; death was between us, coming to the woman first, hundreds of years ago, leaving the house, sealing all the windows; the rooms were darkened. He left it, left her, went North, when East, saw the stars turned in the Southern sky; sought the house; found it dropped beneath the Downs.

The pulse of the house            : safe, safe, safe, the treasure yours

The narrator     : the wind roads up the avenue. Trees stoop and bend this way and that. Moonbeams splash and spill wildly in the rain. But the beam of the lamp falls straight from the window. The candle burns stiff and still. Wandering through the house, opening the windows, whispering not to wake us, the ghostly couple seeks their joy.

Woman ghost  : here we slept

Man ghost       : kisses without number

Woman ghost and man ghost : waking in the morning, silver between the trees, upstairs, in the garden, when summer came, in winter Showtime.

The narrator     : the doors go shutting far in the distance, gently knocking like the pulse of a heart.

Nearer they come, cease at the doorway. The winds falls, the rain slides silver down the glass. Our eyes darken, we hear no steps beside us; we see no lady spread her ghostly cloak. His hands shield the lantern.

Husband          : look. Sound asleep. Love upon their lips.

The narrator     : Stooping, holding their silver lamp above us, long they look and deeply. Long they pause. The wind drives straightly; the flame stoops slightly. Wild beams of moonlight cross both floor and wall, and, meeting, stain the faces bent; the faces pondering; the faces that search the sleepers and seek their hidden joy.

The pulse of the heart : safe, safe, safe

Man ghost       : long years… again you found me.

Woman ghost  : here. Sleeping; in the garden reading; laughing; rolling apples in the loft. Here we left our treasure.

The narrator     : Stooping, their light lifts the lids upon my eyes.

The pulse of the heart : safe, safe, safe !

The narrator     : oh, is this your buried treasure? The light in the heart

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 1
Introduction (literal description/summary/synopsis)

Two ghosts, a male and a female, a couple, go around their former house searching for some buried treasure. In the end, they realize that the real treasure is actually “the light in the heart,” the love of a certain partner for the other partner.

This short story is haunting, yet beautiful. The beginning starts off with a “ghostly couple” that is looking for something. They wander around the house as quiet as they can so they won’t wake the inhabitants. The narrator–who lives in the house–isn’t awoken by them. However, the searching and confusion does pass onto her. The drawing room is described next. When the couple is in there, there are green leaves, roses, and apples reflected in the window. Anyone else just sees the room how it is, though. The house’s heart beats “safe” over and over; ensuring that the treasure the couple is looking for is indeed there and belongs to them. Next, the couple when they weren’t ghosts is described. The wife died hundreds of years back, which sent the husband traveling. He eventually came back to the house, though. The story pulls back to the present, where the couple begins to recall old memories. They stop in the narrator’s doorway and look upon her and her lover. The narrator then wakes and guesses that the hidden treasure is actually the “light in the heart”.

 

Section 2
Intrinsic elements

Setting

a)      place – in a house formerly owned by a ghost couple

b)       time- a long time ago

c)   weather conditions- fine

d)   social conditions- the ghosts led a comfortable life when they were still alive

e)   mood or atmosphere- light

 Character

There are only 4 characters in this short story, the male and the female ghosts, both protagonists, both flat and static. And living couple as minor character, both antagonists, both flat and static.

Conflict

The conflict here is Internal, that of Man (or ghost, to that matter)vs. Himself, as each of the ghosts here is frantically searching for the said treasure around their former house, afraid that the new occupants have found it.

Point of view

The Point of View used in this short story is the Omniscient Limited – The author tells the story in third person (using pronouns they, she, he, it, etc). We know only what the character knows and what the author allows him/her to tell us. We can see the thoughts and feelings of characters if the author chooses to reveal them to us.

Theme

For us, the theme Things are not always as they appear to be is applicable to this story which major theme is love story.

Plot

a) Introduction

This short story takes place in a house where two ghosts, a couple, used to live.

b) Rising Action

The couple-ghosts think that the present living occupants of their former house have already found the buried treasure that they are looking for.

c) Climax

The ghosts are still searching for their treasure and they are wondering whether it is in the garden.

d) Falling action

realizing that the treasure was not found by the house’s present occupants, the ghosts are relieved that it is safe, and such treasure is really theirs.

e) Denouement:

Finally, the ghosts know that the treasure is really safe, and theirs, and such treasure is not tangible things, but intangible, found in the light in the heart.

 

 

 

 

Section 3
Discussion (Analyze by approach)

This short story analyze using kind of formal approach which is new criticism approach.

The technique of “close reading” was created by critics such as F.R. Leavis and Cleanth Brooks, and it’s not a coincidence that it came to the fore in the wake of High Modernism. If one didn’t engage in “close reading” of authors such as James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, or William Faulkner, one couldn’t read them at all. Old techniques such as reading for the plot result in one getting to the bottom of the first page of one of these writers’ works and saying, “Huh?”

The story A Haunted House by Virginia Woolf is a short story full of symbolism, imagery, and irony. The story is narrated in the third-person limited or the limited omniscience point of view which helps the reader to get a more in-depth perception of how the ghosts and the living people feel and helps the reader understand some of the thoughts that these flat, static characters have throughout the story.

The time period is never clearly stated but it appears to be a long time ago, possibly in the late 1800’s at an old English house with a garden. A Haunted House is about a ghost couple, male and female, who go around in a house that was once theirs. The reason for being in the house is that they are searching for buried treasure. ”Whatever our you woke, there was a door shutting” (Woolf 41). The person that occupies the house hears the doors and windows opening and shutting, being well aware of the fact that there are ghost in the house but she is not scared of the ghosts causing harm to her. The ghosts fear that the couple now living in the house might have already found it. The ghost couple searches every single room of the house, going back and forth, double-checking everything. The climax of the story is when the ghost couple comes to the conclusion that the couple occupying the house has never found buried treasure and it could possibly be in the garden. The ghost couple also realizes that the treasure is actually safe and is still in fact theirs.

Finally, the author reveals that the buried treasure is “”the light in the heart”. Throughout the story, Virginia Woolf, uses the repetition of the words “here” and “it”. By using the repetition of the word “here” and “it”, Woolf emphasizes the significance of both of the words. The couple says “it” could be “here” in the book room, the drawing room and the upstairs. They also say if “it’s” upstairs or if they left “it” in the drawing room. This makes the reader start to question what exactly are the ghosts looking for and where did they leave it? The author also makes the reader wonder if “it” is “here” and if not “here” then where is “it”? When Woolf finally explains that “it” is “treasure”, the reader is led to imagine what kind of treasure are the ghosts looking for? In the last sentence when the author reveals that the ghosts were looking for “the light in the heart” and by this she was referring to a love that a partner can have for another partner.

Woolf reveals clues throughout the story by showing the reader the happy thoughts and love that the ghosts shared with each other. For example, “we slept here” and “kisses without number”. The story has a symbolic meaning to it because the treasure is not an actually tangible item, rather a symbol of love. Imagery is used in the story very often and is used for great effect by giving the reader a mental picture of what is being described and giving the reader the perception that Woolf desires for the reader. Examples of imagery in the story are abundant but a specific example is in the simile, “The doors go shutting in the distance, gently knocking like the pulse of a heart.” This puts the reader right in the story and allows them to see the doors shutting and the ghosts moving through the house. Just by the title, A Haunted House, the story makes the perception of the house seem that of an evil place. This shows the irony because both of the ghosts are the protagonists and throughout the story it shows the reader the memories of joy and love between the ghost couple. The irony of the story also helps in allowing the reader to understand the story’s theme, which is something is not always what it seems to be. In this story the ghosts are actually the protagonists unlike other stories where ghosts are seen as the antagonists.

 

 

 

Section 4
Conclusion

A haunted house by Virginia Woolf is a short story which is interesting and wonders the reader to read and read again until she or he get the point. It is interesting because no one can guess the meaning before she or he use close reading and looking for of the meaning of symbols which are appear in the short story. The reader will not satisfy until she or he get the point of the story. Although the readers have found the point of the story, it is amazing that the reader always want to read more and more.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section 5
Bibliography

http://sparknotes.com/
http://www.novelguide.com/index.html
http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/homework/l…
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/
http://www.reviewsofbooks.com
http://www.bartleby.com/
http://www.shvoong.com/
http://www.gradesaver.com/
http://www.homeworkspot.com/

MAKALAH KURIKULUM TINGKAT SATUAN PENDIDIKAN

OUT LINE

  1. PENGERTIAN KTSP
  2. HAKIKAT KTSP
  3. MENGEMBANGKAN KTSP
  4. CARA MENYUSUN KTSP
  5. PEMBELAJARAN DEAN PENILAIAN BERBASIS KTSP
  6. MUATAN LOKAL DAN PENGEMBANGAN DIRI
  1. 1.      PENGERTIAN KTSP

KTSP merupakan singkatan dari Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan adalah kurikulum yang dikembangkan dan dilaksanakan oleh setiap satuan pendidikan yang sudah siap dan mampu mengembangkannya. KTSP dikembangkan sesuai dengan satuan pendidikan, potensi sekolah/daerah, karakteristik sekolah/daerah, social budaya masyarakat setempat, dan karakteristik peserta didik. Sekolah dan komite sekolah, atau madrasah dan komite madrasah, mengembangkan KTSP dan silabus berdasarkan kerangka dasar kurikulum dan standar kompetensi lulusan, dibawah supervise dinas kabupaten/kota yang bertanggung jawab dibidang pendidikan di SD, SMP, SMA, dan SMK, serta Departemen yang menangani urusan pemerintahan dibidang agama untuk MI,MTs, MA, dan MAK.

  1. 2.      HAKIKAT KTSP
    1. A.    Konsep Dasar KTSP

KTSP disusunn dan dikembangkan berdasarkan Undang-Undang No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional pasal 36 ayat 1) dan 2) sebagai berikut:

  1.   Pengembangan kurikulum mengacu pada Standar Nasional Pendidikan untuk mewujudkan Tujuan Pendidikan Nasional.
  2. Kurikulum pada semua jenjang dan jenis pendidikan dikembangkan dengna prinsip diversivikasi sesuai dengan satuan pendidikan, potensi daerah, dan peserta didik.

Beberapa hal yang perlu dipahami dalam kaitannya dengan KTSP:

  • KTSP dikembangkan sesuai dengna kondisi satuan pendidikan, potensi dan karakteristik daerah, serta social budaya masyarakat setempat dan peserta didik.
  • Sekolah dan komite sekolah mengembangkan KTSP dan silabusnya berdasarkan kerangka dasar kurikulum dan standar kompetensi dasar lulusan, dibawah supervisi dinas pendidikan kabupaten/kota, dan departemen agama yang bertanggung jawab dibidang pendidikan.
  • KTSP untu setiap program studi dipergurun tinggi diembangkan dan ditetapkan oleh masing-masing perguruan tinggi dengan mengacu pada standar nasional pendidikan.
  1. B.     TUJUAN KTSP

Secara umum tujuan diterapkannya KTSP adalah untuk memandirikan dan memberdayakan satuan pendidikan melalui pemberian kewenangan (otonomi) kepada lembaga pendidikan dan mendorong sekolah untuk melakukan pengambilan keputusan secara partisipatif dalam pengembangan kurikulum.

Secara khusus tujuan diterapkannya KTSP adalah untuk:

  1. Meningkatkan mutu pendidikan melalui kemandirian dan inisiatif sekolah dalam mengembangkan kurikulum, mengelola dan memberdayakan sumberdaya yang tersedia.
  2. Meningkatkan kepedulian warga sekolah dan masyarakat dalam pengembangan kurikulum melalui keputusan bersama.
  3. Meningkatkan kompetensi yang sehat antar satuan pendidikan tentang kualitas pendidikan yang akan dicapai.
  1. C.    Landasan Pengembangan KTSP

KTSP dilandasi oleh undang-undang dan peraturan pemerintah sebagai berikut

  • Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang sisdiknas
  • PP Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan
  • Permendiknas No.22 Thaun 2006 tentang Standar Isi
  • Permendiknas  No. 23 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan
  • Pjermendiknas No. 24 Tahun 2006 tentang Pelaksanaan Permendiknas No. 22 dan 23.
  1. D.    Karakteristik KTSP
    1. Pemberian Otonomi Luas Kepada Sekolah dan Satuan Pendidikan

KTSP memberikan otonomi luas kepada sekolah dan satuan pendidikan, disertai seperangkat tanggung jawab untuk mengembangkan kurikulum sesuai dengan kondisi setempat.

  1. Partisipasi Masyarakat dan Orang Tua yang Tinggi

Dalam KTSP, pelaksanaan kurikulum didukung oleh partisipasi masyarakat dan orang tua peserta didik dan masyarakat tidak hanya mendukung sekolah melalui bantuan keuangan, tetapi melalui komite sekolah dan dewan pendidikan merumuskan serta mengenbangkan pogram-program yng dapat meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran. Masyarakat dan orang tua menjalin kerjasama untuk membantu sekolah sebagai narasumber pada berbagai kegiatan sekolah untuk meningtkatkan kualitas pembelajaran.

  1. Kepemimpinan yang Demokratis dan Profesional

Dalam KTSP, pengembangan dan pelaksanaan kurikulumu didukung oleh aadanya kepemimpinan sekolah yang demokratis dan professional. Kepala sekolah dan guru-guru sebagai tenaga pelaksana kurikulum merupakan orng-orang yang memiliki kemampuan dan integritas professional. Kepala sekolah adalah menejer pendidikan professional yang direkrut komite sekolah utuk mengelola segala kegiatan sekolah berdasarkan kebijakan yang ditetapkan.

  1.  Tim-Kerja yang kompak dan transparan

Dalam KTSP, keberhasilan pengembangan kurikulum dan pembelajarang didukung oleh kinerja tim yang kompak dan transparan dari berbagai pihak yang terlibat dalam pembelajran. Dalam dewan pendidikan dan komite sekolah misalnya, pihak-pihak yang terlibat bekerjasama secara harmonis sesuai dengan posisinya masing-masing untuk mewujudkan sesuatu sekolah yang dapa tdibanggakan pleh semua pihak. Mereka tidak saling menunjukan kuasa atau paling berjasa, tetapi masing-masing berkontribusi terhadap upaya peningkatan mutu dan kinerja sekolah secara keseluruhan. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan:

  1. Sistem informasi yang jelas dan transparan
  2. Sistem penghargaan dan hukuman

E. Akankah KTSP mendongkrak Kualitas Pendidikan

 

Melalui KTSP , sekolah dan satuan pendidikan perlu dikembangkan menjadi lembaga yang diberi kewenagan dan tanggung jawab secara luas untuk mandiri, maju, dan berkembang berdasarkan strategi kebijakan menejemen pendidikan yang ditetapkan pemerintah. Persoalan yang muncul adalah apakah kondisi aktualo satuan pendidikan dan sekolah-sekolah di Indonesia beserta sumberdayanya sudah memiliki kesiapan untuk mengembangkan dan melaksanakan KTSP yang akan mengubah pola dan seistem pengembangan kurikulum? Lantas, mampukah KTSP mendongkrak kulaits pendidikan? Dan masih banyak persoalan lain yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pengembangan dan penerapan KTSP.

Sehubngan dengan itu, agar pengembangan dan penerapan KTSP mampu mendongkrak kualitas pendidikan, perlu didukung oleh perubahan mendasar dalam kebijakan pengelolaan sekolah yang menyangkut aspek-aspek berikut:

  1. 1.      Iklim pembelajaran yang kondusif

Pengembangan KTSP perlu didukung oleh iklim pembelajaran yang kondusif bagi tercapainya suasana yang aman, nyaman dan tertib, sehingga proses pembelajaran dapat berlangsung dengna tenang dan menyenangkan. Iklim yang demikian akan mendorong terwujudnya proses pembelajaran yang aktif, kreatif, efektif dan bermakna; yang lebih menekankan pada belajar mengetahui (learnign to know), belajar berkarya (learning to do), belajar menjadi diri sendiri (learning to be) dan belajar hidup bersama secara harmonis (learning to live together). Suasana tersebut akan memupuk tumbuhnya kemandirian dan berkurangnya ketergantungan dikalanagna warga sekolah, bersifat adaktif dan proaktif serta memilikii jiwa kewirausahaan tinggi (ulet, inovatif, dan berani mengambil resiko), tidak saja bagi peserta didik, tetapi juga guru dan pimpinannya. Untuk kepentingan tersebut, sukses KTSP perlu didukung oleh ahli kurikulum, dilengkapi oleh sarana dan prasarana pembelajaran, serta diperkaya oleh sumber-sumbel belajar yang memadai.

  1. 2.      Otonomi sekolah dan satuan pendidikan

Dalam pengembangan kurikulum sentralisasi, sekolah dan satuan pendidikan sebagai pelaksana kurikulum, hampir tidak pernah diberi kewenangnan untuk memnentukan kut\rikulum atau sistem evaluasi pembelajaran sesuai dengna kondisi dan kebutuhan peserta didik secara aktual. Sekolah hanya berfungsi sebagai pelaksana kurikulum dari pusat, meskipun kadang-kadang tidak sesuai dengan kondisi dan kebutuhan peserta didik.

Dalam KTSP, kebijakan pengembangan kurikulum dan pembelajaran beserta sistem evaluasinya disentralisasikan disekolah dan satuan pendidikan, sehingga pengembangan kurikulum diharapkan sesuai dengan kebutuhan peserta didik dan masyarakat secara lebih fleksibel. Pemerintah pusat, dalam hal ini BSNP, Depdiknas dan Depag hanya menetapkan standar nasional, yang mengembangkannya diserahkan kepada madrasah atau sekolah. Dengan demikian desentralisasi kebijakan dalam pengembangan kurikulum dan pembelajaran beserta sistem evaluasinya merupakan prasyarat untuk mengimplementasikan KTSP.

  1. 3.      Kewajiban sekolah dan satuan pendidikan

KTSP yang menawarkan keleluasan dalam pengembangan kurikulum, memiliki potensi besar dalam menciptakan kepala sekolah/ madrasah, guru dan pengelola satuan pendidikan secara profesional. Oleh karena it, pelaksanaan KTSP perku disetai seperangkat kewajiban, serta monitoring dan tuntutan pertanggungjawaban (akuntabel) yang relatif tinggi, untuk menjamin bahwa sekolah selain memiliki otonomi juga mempunyai kewajiban untuk melaksanakan kebijakan pemerintah dan memenuhi harapan masyarakat. Dengan demikian sekolah dan satuan pendidikan dituntut mampu mengembangkan kurikulum dan mengelola sumberdaya secara transparan, demokratis dan bertanggungjawab baik terhadap masyarakat maupunn pmerintah, dalam rangka meningkatkan kapasitas pelayanan dan kualitas terhadap peserta didik.

  1. 4.      Kepemimpinan Sekolah yang Demokratis dan Profesional

Pelaksanaan KTSP memerlukan sosok kepala sekolah/madrasah yang memiliki kemampuan menejerial yang tinggi, serta demokratis dalam proses pengambilan keputusan-keputusan mendasar. Pada mumnya, kepala sekolah di Indonesia belum dapat dikatakan sebagai “maanajer profesional”, karena sistem pengangkatan selama ini tidak didasarkan pada kemampuan  atau pendidikan profesioanal, tetapi lebih pada pengalaman menjadi guru. Hal ini disinyalir pula oleh laporan Bank Dunia (1999), bahwa salah satu penyebab semakin menurunnya mutu pendidikan persekolahan di Indonesia adalah “kurang profesionalnya” para kepala sekolah sebagai manajer pendidikan ditingkat lapangan. Dengan demikian, pelaksanaan KTSP memerlukan perubahan sistem pengankatan kepala sekolah/madrasah dari pengangkatan kiarena pengangkatan atau pengalaman kerja sebagai guru kepada pengangkatan berdasarkan kemampuan dan keterampilan secara profesional.

Dalam KTSP, kepala sekolah dan guru merupakan “the key person” keberhasilan pelaksanaan “pembelajaran”. Ia adlah orang yang diberi tanggung jawab untukmengembangkan dan melaksanakan kurikulum untuk mewujudkan pembelajaran yang berkualitas sesuai visi, misi dan tujuan sekolah. Oleh karena itu, dalam implementasi KTSP, kepala sekolah dituntut untuk memilikii visi dan wawasan yang luas tentang pembelajaran yang efektif serta kemempuan profesional yang memadai dalam bidang perencanaan, kepemimpinan, manajerial dan supervisi pendidikan. Ia juga harus memiliiki kemampuan untuk membangun kerjasama yang harmonis dengan berbagai pihak yang terkait dengan kurikulum.

  1. 5.      Revitalisasi partisipasi masyarakat dan orang tua

Secara historis sekolah merupakan sistem pendidikan yang berkembang dari, oleh dan untuk masyarakat, sehingga masyarakat memiliki tanggung jawab yang sangat besar terhadap eksistensinya. Namun dalam perkembangan berikutnya, terutama sekolah yang dikellola oleh pemerintah (negeri) seolah-olah berada diluar masyarakat dan orang tua. Sehingga partisipasi mereka menjadi pudar.

Dalam pengembangan KTSP, partisipasi aktif berbagai kelompok masyarakat dan pihak orangtua dlam perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan dan pengawasan program-program sekolah/madrsah perlu dibangkitkan kembali. Wujud keterlibatan, bukan hanya dalam bantuan finansial , tetapi lebih dari itu, dalam pemikiran-pemikiran untuk penignkatan kualitas pembelajaran. Masyarakat dan orang tua harus disadarkan bahwa sekolah merupakan lembaga pendidikan yang perlu didukung oleh semua pihak. Prestasi keberhasilan sekolah harus menjadi kebanggaan masyarakat dan lingkungannya. Ini berarti, pelaksanaan KTSP memerlukan kesadaran dan partisipasi aktif semua pihak yang terkait dengan pendidikan disekolah. Masalahnya, siapa yang harus mengembangkan partisipasi orangtua dan masyarakat? jawaban praktisnya adalah bahwa pihak sekolah dalam hali ini kepala sekolah, guru dan tenaga kependidikan yang lain, harus menggunakan berbagai strategi dan daya untuk mendorong masyarakat dan orang tua menjadi bagian integral dari sistem sekolah, beserta seluruh kegiatannya.

  1. 6.      Menghidupkan serta meluruskan KKG dan MGMP

Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGPG) atau Musyawarah Guru Bidang Studi (MGBS) dan Kelompok Kerja Guru (KKG) merupakan organisasi guru, yang pada saat ini keberadannya pada sebagian sekolah dan satuan pendidikan sudah mati suri. Dikatakan demikian, karena kebanyakan organisaasi tersebut pada saat ini tidak memiliki dan tidak melakukan program kerja sesuai dengan tujuan awalnya. Tujuan MGMP dan KKG terutama adakah untuk meningkatkan kompetensi dan profesionalisme guru dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan. Namun demikian dalam pelaksanaannya, kegiatan organisaasi tersebut banyak yang perlu diluruskan. Misalnya organisasi tersebut hanya digunakan sebagai ajang arisan, bahkan tidak sedikit yang menggunakan organisasi tersebut hanya untuk membicarakan jadwal less bagi peserta didik menjelang ujian.

Oleh karena itu, dalam rangkan menignkatkan kualitas penidikan dinegeri ini dapat dilakukan dengna menghidupkan dan meluruskan MGMP dan KKG. Bagi yang hampir mati suri karena tidak ada kegiatan, perlu dihidupkan kembal, sementara bagi yang menghidupkan kegiatan tetapi melenceng atau diluar rel perlu diluruskan dan diingatkan agar kembali kejalan yang lurus. Yakni upaya meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan tanpa merugikan peserta didik  atau kelompok lain.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah guru pada sekolah-sekolah dewasa ini umumnya sudah cukup memadai, tetapi suasana belajar belum cukup kondusif akibat metode mengajar guru yang kurang bervariasi. Persoalan tersebut dapat diatsi melalui MGMP, trmasuk cara mengembangkan KTSP dan komponen-komponen lainnya, serta mencari alternatif pembelajaran yang tepat dan menemukan berbagai variasi metode, dan variasi media untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran.

  1. 7.      Kemandirian guru

Disamping mengikuti MGMP dan KKG untuk menemukan solusi terhadap berbagai masalah dalam pembelajaran, dalam KTSP guru juga harus mampu bekerja mandiri untuk memperbaiki diri dalam pembelajaran. Hal ini penting agar ia benar-benar menjadi guru yang mampu diggugu dan ditiru. Sehingga tidak saja mampu emngembangkan KTSP tetapi juga melaksanakannya dalam pembelajaran secara efektif dan meyenangkan.

F. Asumsi yang Mendasari KTSP

Seperti telah diuraikan pada bahasan diatas, bahwa KTSP adalah kurikulum operasional yang disusun dan dilaksanakan oleh masing-masing satuan pendidikan. Penyusunan KTSP dilakukan oleh satuan pendidikan dengan memperhatikan dan berdasarkan standar kompetensi pendidikan (guru, kepala sekolah, komite sekolah, dan dewan pendidikan) pada satuan pendidikan, disekolah dan daerah masing-masing.

Mengingata bahwa penyusunan KTSP diserahkan kepada satuan pendidikan, sekolah dan daerah masing-masing, diasumsikan bahwa guru kepala sekolah, komite sekolah, dan dewan pendidikan akan sangant bersahabat dengan kurikulum tersebut. Diasumsikan demikian, karena mereka terlibat secara langsung dalam proses penyusunannya, dan mereka (guru) yang akan melaksanakannya dalam proses pembelajaran dikelas, sehingga memahami betul apa yang harus dilakukan dalam pembelajaran sehubungan dengan kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang dan tantangan yang dimiliki oleh setiap satuan pendidikan didaerah masing-masing. Mereka pula yang akan melakukan penilaian terhadap hasil pembelajaran yang dilakukannya, sehingga keberkasilan pembelajaran merupakan tanggungjawab guru secara profesional.

Keterlibatan guru, kepala sekolah, masyarakat yang tergabung dlaam komite sekolah dan dewan pendidikan dalam pengambilan keputusan akan mengembangkan rasa kepemilikan yang lebih tinggi terhadap kurikulum, sehingga mendorong mereka untuk mendayagunakan sumber daya yang ada seefisien mungin untuk mencapai hasil yang optimal. Konsep ini didasarkan pda Self Determination Theory yang menyatakan bahwa jika seseorang memiliki kekuasaan dalam pengambilan suatu keputusan, maka akan memiliki tanggung jawab yang besar untuk melaksanakan keputusan tersebut.

MENGEMBANGKAN KTSP

BAGAN PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM

Konteks Pendidikan

Kebangkitan Islam, Clean and Good Governance, Otonomi Daerah, Millenium Gols 2015 (Globalisasi), Demokratisasi, Pembangunan Berkelanjutan, Perkembangan IPTEKS, serta Ekonomi Berbasis Spiritual, Moral, dan Intelektual.

 

KURIKULUM NASIONAL

STANDAR KOMPETENSI

  • SKL
  • SK-SMP
  • SK-MP
  • KD

STANDAR ISI

  • KERANGKA DASAR
  • STRUKTUR KURIKULUM
  • BEBAN BELAJAR
  • KALENDER PENDIDIKAN

KURIKULUM AKTUAL PROSES PEMBELAJARAN

 

  1. Pengembangan Kurikulum
  2. Pengembangan Kurikulum Tingkat Nasionnal

Dalam kaitannya dengan KTSP, pengembangan kurikulum tingkat nasional dilakukan dalam rangka mengembangkan Standar Nasional Pendidikan, yang pada saat ini mencakup Standar Kompetensi Nasional (SKL) dan Standar Isi (SI) untuk setiap satuan pendidikan pada masing-masing jenjang dan jenis pendidikan, terutama pada jalur pendidikan sekolah.

  1. Pengambangan KTSP
  2. Menganalisis, dan mengambangkan standar kompetensi kelulusan (SKL), dan Standar Isi (SI).
  3. Merumuskan visi dan misi, serta merumuskan tujuan pendidikan pada tingkat satuan pendidikan.
  4. Berdasarkan SKL, standar isi, visi, dan misi, serta tujuan pendidikan pada tingkat satuan pendidikan di atas selanjutnya dikembangkan bidang studi-bidang studi yang akan diberikan untuk merealisasikan tujuan tersebut.
  5. Mengembangkan dan mengidentifikasi tenaga-tenaga kependidikan (guru dan non guru) sesuai dengan kualifikasi yang diperlukan, dengan berpedoman pada standar tenaga kependidikan yang ditetapkan BSNP.
  6. Mengidentifikasi fasilitas pembelajaran yang diperlukan untuk member kemudahan belajar, sesui dengan standar sarana dan prasarana pendidikan yang ditetapkan BSNP.
  1. Pengembangan silabus
  2. Mengidentifikasi standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar serta tujuan setiap bidang studi.
  3. Mengembangkan kompetensi dasar dan materi standar yang diperlukan dalam pembelajaran.
  4. Mendeskripsikan kompetensi dasar serta mengelompokkannya sesuai dengan ruang lingkup dan urutannya.
  5. Mengembanngkan indicator untuk setiap kompetensi serta criteria pencapaiannya, dan mengelompokkannya sesuai dengan ranah pengetahuan, pemahaman, kemampuan (keterampilan), nilai, dan sikap.
  6. Mengembangkan instrument penilaian yang sesuai dengan indicator pencapaian kompetensi.
  1. Pengembangan RPP
  2. Kurikulum Aktual (Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran)
  3. Prinsip Pengembangan KTSP
  4. Berpusat pada potensi, perkembangan, serta kebutuhan peserta didik dan lingkungannya.
  5. Beragam dan terpadu
  6. Tanggap terhadap perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, dan seni
  7. Relevan dengan kebutuhan
  8. Menyeluruh dan berkesinambungan
  9. Belajar sepanjang hayat
  10. Seimbang antara kepentingan global, nasional dan local

CARA MENYUSUN KTSP

            KTSP harus dikembangkan sesuai dengan visi, misi, tujuan, kondisi,dan cirri khas satuan pendidikan. Oleh karena itu, dalam pelaksanaannya penyusunan KTSP mencakup komponen sebagai berikut : Pengembangan visi dan misi, Perumusan tujuan pendidikan satuan pendidikan, Analisis konteks (untuk memotret kondisi, dan cirri khas satuan pendidikan), Pengembangan struktur dan muatan KTSP, Pengembangan kalender pendidikan, Pengembangan silabus, pengembangan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP).

  1. Proses Menyusun KTSP

Proses penyusunan KTSP perlu diawali dengan melakukan analisis konteks terhadap hal-hal sebagai berikut.

  • Analisis potensi, kekuatan, dan kelemahan yang ada di sekolah dan satuan pendidikan, baik yang berkaitan dengan peserta didik, guru, kepala sekolah dan tenaga administrasi, sarana prasarana, serta pembiayaan, dan program-program yang ada di sekolah.
  • Analisis peluang dan tantangan yang ada di masyarakat dan lingkungan sekitar. Yang bersumber dari komite sekolah, dewan pendidikan, dinas pendidikan, asosiasi profesi dunia industri dan dunia kerja, serta sumber daya alam dan social budaya.
  • Mengidentifikasi standar isi dan standar kompetensi lulusan sebagai acuan dalam penyusunan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan.

Untuk kepentingan tersebut, sedikitnya ada tujuh langkah yang harus dilaksanakan dalam proses penyusunan KTSP.

  1. Menentukan focus atau kompetensi dasar,
  2. Menentukan variable atau indicator,
  3. Menentukan standar,
  4. Membandingkan standar dan kompetensi,
  5. Menentukan kesenjangan yang terjadi,
  6. Merencanakan target untuk mencapai standar, dan
  7. Merumuskan cara-cara dan program untuk mencapai target.
  1. Mengembangkan Komponen KTSP

Dalam garus besarnya KTSP memiliki enam komponen penting sebagai berikut.

  • Visi dan misi
  • Tujuan pendidikan satuan pendidikan
  • Menyusun kalender pendidikan
  • Struktur muatan KTSP
  • Silabus
  • RPP
  1. Visi dan Misi Satuan Pendidikan

Dalam menetapkan visi dan misi satuan pendidikan, kepala sekolah harus terlebih dahulu memahami visi itu sendiri. Oleh karena itu, tugas utama kepala sekolah adalah menyisihkan waktunya agar dapat mengkomunikasikan visi tersebut ke seluruh jajaran dan tingkat manajemen.

Dalam mengembangkan visinya, kepala sekolah harus mampu mendayagunakan kekuatan-kekuatan yang relevan bagi kegiatan internal sekolah.

  1. Tujuan Pendidikan Satuan Pendidikan

Dalam pengembangan KTSP, satuan pendidikan harus menyusun program peningkatan mutu yang mencakup tujuan, sasaran dan target yang akan dicapai, untuk program jangka pendek maupun program jangka panjang (strategis).

Tujuan pendidikan satuan pendidikan merupakan acuan dalam mengembangkan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan (KTSP).

  1. Menyusun Kalender Pendidikan

Dalam rangka pengembangan KTSP setiap satuan pendidikan harus menyusun kalender pendidikan sesuai dengan kebutuhan daerah, karakteristik sekolah, kebutuhan peserta didik dan masyarakat, dengan memperhatikan kalender pendidikan sebagaimana tercantum dalam standar isi.

Dalam penyusunan kalender pendidikan, pengembang kurikulum harus mampu menghitung jam belajar efektif untuk membentuk kompetensi dasar yang harus dimiliki oleh peserta didik. Penyusunan kaender pendidikan selama satu tahun pelajaran mengacu pada efisiensi, efektifitas, dan hak-hak peserta didik.

  1. Struktur Muatan KTSP

Struktur KTSP ialah sebagai berikut :

  1. Mata pelajaran

Mata pelajaran dan alokasi waktu untuk masing-masing tingkat satuan pendidikan bisa dilihat dalam struktur kurikulum yang tercantum dalam standar isi.

  1. Muatan local

Muatan local adalah kegiatan kurikuler untuk mengembangkan kompetensi yang sesuai dengan kondisi, karakteristik dan potensi daerah.

  1. Kegiatan pengembangan diri

Kegiatan pengembangan diri bertujuan memberikan kesempatan kepada peserta didik untuk mengembangkan dan mengekspresikan diri sesuai dengan potensi yang dimilikinya.

  1. Pengaturan beban belajar

Beban belajar dalam system paket digunakan oleh tingkat satuan pendidikan, SD, SMP, SMA sederajat yang masih dalam tingkat kategori standar.

Beban belajar Sistem Kredit Semester (SKS) dapat juga digunakan oleh SD,SMP,SMA sederajat yang berkatagori mandiri dan juga standar.

  1. Kenaikan kelas, penjurusan, dan kelulusan

Kenaikan kelas, penjurusan, dan kelulusan mengacu kepada standar penilaian yang dikembangkan oleh BNSP.

  1. Pendidikan kecakapan hidup

Kurikulum untuk SD, SMP, dan SMA sederajat dapat memasukkan pendidikan kecakapan hidup, yang mencakup kecakapan pribadi, kecakapan social, kecakapan akademik, dan kecakapan vokasional.

  1. Pendidikan berbasis keunggulan local dan global

Kurikulum untuk semua satuan tingkat pendidikan dapat memasukkan pendidikan berbasis keunggulan local dan global. Pendidikan ini merupakan bagian dari semua mata pelajaran yang dapat diperoleh oleh peserta didik selama menempuh jenjang pendidikannya.

  1. Silabus

Silabus merupakan rencana pembelajaran pada suatu kelompok mata pelajaran dengan tema tertentu, yang mencakup standar kompetensi, kompetensi dasar, materi pembelajaran, indicator, penilaian, alokasi waktu, dan sumber belajar yang dikembangkan oleh setiap satuan pendidikan.

  1. RPP

RPP adalah rencana yang menggambarkan prosedur dan manajemen pembelajaran untuk mencapai satu atau lebih kompetensi dasar yang ditetapkan dalam standar isi dan dijabarkan dalam silabus.

  1. Mekanisme Penyusunan KTSP
    1. Pembentukan tim kerja

Tim pengembang KTSP terdiri dari guru, kepala sekolah, guru pembimbing, komite sekolah, orang tua serta peserta didik.

  1. Penyusunan draft

Setelah tim terbentuk, selanjutnya mengembangkan draft KTSP yang lengkap mulai dari perumusan visi dan misi sampai dengan RPP.

  1. Refisi dan finalisasi

Penyusunan KTSP merupakan bagian dari kegiatan perencanaan sekolah. Dan kegiatan ini dapat berbentuk rapat kerja yang dilaksanakan sebelum tahun ajaran baru.

  1. Pengesahan KTSP

Dokumen KTSP SD, SMP, SMA dinyatakan berlaku oleh kepala sekolah serta diketahui oleh komite sekolah dan dinas kabupaten atau kota yang bertanggungjawab di bidang pendidikan.

Dokumen KTSP MI, MTs, MA dinyatakan berlaku oleh kepala madrasah serta diketahui oleh komite madrasah dan oleh departemen yang menangani urusan pemerintahan di bidang agama.

Dokumen KTSP SDLB, SMPLB, dan SMALB dinyatakan berlaku oleh kepala sekolah serta diketahui oleh komite sekolah dan dinas provinsi yang bertanggungjawab di bidang pendidikan.

PEMBELAJARAN DAN PENILAIAN BERBASIS KTSP

 

Pembelajaran dan penilaian adalah operasionalisasi konsep KTSP yang masih bersifat tertulis menjadi aktual dalam bentuk kegiatan pembelajara.

Pembelajaran berbasis KTSP sedikitnya dipengaruhi oleh tiga faktor berikut:

  1. Karakteristik KTSP
  2. Strategi pembelajran
  3. Karekteristik pengguna kurikulum
  1. A.    Pengembangan Program

Pengembangan KTSP meliputi pengembangan program tahunan, program semester, program pokok bahasan, program mingguan dan harian, program pengayaan dan remedial, serta program bimbingan dan konseling.

a)      Program Tahunan

Program tahunan merupakan program umum setiap mata pelajaran untuk setiap kelas yang dikembangkan oleh guru mata pelajran yang bersangkutan.

b)      Program Semester

Program semester berisikan garis-gars besar mengenai hal-hal yang hendak dilaksanakan dan dicapai dalam semester tersebut.

c)      Program Mingguan dan Harian

Program ini merupakan penjabaran dari program semester dan program modul.

d)     Program Pengayaan dan Remedial

Program ini merupakan pelegkap dan penjabaran dari program mingguan dan harian.

  1. B.     Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran

Pada umumnya pelaksanaan pembelajran berbasis KTSP meliputi tiga hal; pre tes, pembentukan kompetensi, dan pos tes.

  1. 1.      Pre tes (tes awal)

Fungsi dilaksanakannya pre tes adalah;

  • Untuk menyiapkan peserta didik dalam proses belajar
  • Untuk mengetahui tingkat kemajuan peserta didik
  • Untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal yang dimiliki peserta didik
  • Untuk mengetahui dari mana seharusnya proses pembelajaran dimulai
  1. 2.      Pembentukan Kompetensi

Pembentukan kompetensi merupakan kegiatan inti dari pelaksanaan proses pembelajran, yakni bagaimana kompetensi dibentuk ada peserta didik, dan bagaimana tujuan-tujuan belajar direalisasikan.

  1. 3.      Post tes

Untuk mengukur keberhasilan pelaksanaan pembelajaran maka diperlukan tes yang akan mengukur ketercapaian kompetensi dalam pembelajran dan tes itulah yang dinamakan pos tes. Pos tes memiliki banyak kegunaan diantaranya:

  • Untuk mengetahui tingkat penguasaan peserta didik terhadap kompetensi yang telah ditentukan
  • Utuk mengetahui kompetensi dan tujuan-tujuan yang dapat dikuasai oleh peserta didik
  • Untuk mengetahui peserta didik yang perlu mengikuti program pengayaan dan remedial
  • Sebagai bahan acuan untuk melakukan perbaikan terhadap kegiatan pembelajaran dan pembentukan kompetensi yang telah dilaksanakan.

 

  1. C.    Penilaian Hasil Belajar

Penilaian hasil belajar dalam KTSP dapat dilakukan dengan penilaian kelas, tes  kemampuan dasar, penilaian akhir satuan pendidikan dan sertifikasi, dan penilaian program.

1)      Penilaian Kelas

Penialain kelas dilakukan dengan ulangan harian, ulangan umum, dan ulangan akhir. Ulangan harian dilakukan minimal tiga kali dalam setiap semester. Ulangan umum dilaksanakan secara bersamaan untuk kelas paralel, dan pada umumnya dilakukan ulangan umum bersama, baik tingkay rayon, kecamatan, ataupun tingkat kabupaten.  Ujian akhir dilakukan pada akhir program pendidikan.

2)      Tes Kemampuan Dasar

Tes kemampuan dasar dilakukan untuk mengetahui kemampuan membaca, menulis, dan berhitung yang diperlukan dalam rangka memperbaiki program pembelajaran.

3)      Penilaian Akhir Satuan Pendidikan dan Sertifikasi

Pada akhir semester dan tahun pelajran diselenggarakan kegiatan penilaian guna mendapatkan gambaran secara utuh dan menyeluruh mengenai ketuntasan belajar peserta didik dalam satuan waktu tertentu.

4)      Penilaian Program

Penialain program dilakukan oleh Departemen Pendidikan Nasioanal dan Dinas Pendidikan secara kontinu dan berkesinambungan. Penilaian program dilakukan untuk mengetahui kesesuaian KTSP dengan dasar, fungsi, dan tujuan pendidikan nasional, serta kesesuiannya dengan tuntutan pekembangan masyarakat, dan kemajuan zaman.

1.1. LOCAL CONTENT

A.Background
Indonesia is made up of various ethnic groups who have multicultural diversity (customs, manners, language, art, craft, skill areas, etc.) is characteristic of the enrich the values of the nation of Indonesia. Therefore diversity must be preserved and developed while maintaining the noble values of Indonesia through educational efforts. The introduction of environmental, social, and cultural
to students enabling them to better familiarize with its environment. The introduction and development of environmental through education directed to support quality improvement
human resources, and ultimately directed at improving ability learners.
Policies related to the inclusion of local content program Content Standards in Indonesia based on the fact that there diverse cultures. Schools where the education program executed are part of the community. Therefore, the education programs in schools need to provide a broad insight
on learners of specificity in their environment.
Content Standards which are all centrally organized may not be able
these include local content. So it is necessary to set eyes lessons based on local content.
B. Cornerstone
A. Law no. 22 of 1999 on Regional Governance
2. Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 Year 2003 on
The National Education System Article 37 paragraph (1) and Article 38 paragraph (2)
3. Indonesian Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005
on National Education Standards
C. Purpose
General Purpose
This guide may be a reference for the education unit SD / MI / SDLB,
SMP / MTs / SMPLB, SMA / MA / SMALB, and SMK / MAK in
Local Content development Subjects that will be implemented
at the level of the education is concerned.
Special Purpose
The course aims to provide local content provision
knowledge, skills and behaviors to students in order
they have a solid knowledge about the state of the environment and
community needs in accordance with applicable values prevailing in region and support the sustainability of regional development and
national development. More clearly so that learners can:
1. Recognize and become more familiar with the natural environment, social,
and culture,
2. Have the ability and skills provision as well as knowledge
the regions that are useful for themselves and the environment
society in general,
3. Have the attitude and behavior that is consistent with values
prevailing in the area, as well as preserving and
develop noble values of the local culture in order
support national development.
D. Understanding
The curriculum is a set of plans and arrangements regarding the purpose, content, and teaching materials and methods used as a guide organization of learning activities to achieve goals
certain education. SBC is the operational curriculum developed by and implemented in each educational unit. SBC consists of educational goals, level of the education, curriculum structure and unit level
education, educational calendar, and syllabus. Local charge is to develop curricular activities
competencies that are tailored to regional characteristics and potential, including the advantages, in that the material can not be grouped into the existing subjects. The substance of the charge of subjects
determined by the local education units, not limited to the eye literacy classes. Local content is part of the structure and content of the curriculum contained in the Content Standards in the curriculum of the educational unit. The existence of the subject is a form of local content providing education that is not centralized, in an effort to education in each region increases more
relevance to the circumstances and needs areas concerned. This is in line with efforts to improve the quality of education, so the existence of national support and local curriculum complement the national curriculum. Local content is a subject, so that the educational unit need to develop competencies and Competency Standards for Basic any type of local content is organized. Education units can be
organize a local content of subjects each semester. This means bahawa education units in one year can
held two subjects of local content
E. Scope
The scope of local content is as follows:
1. Scope of state and local requirements. Local circumstances is everything that there is a particular area which is basically related to the natural environment, socioeconomic environment, and
socio-cultural environment. Needs of the region is anything needed by people in an area, especially for
survival and increasing the level of community life, which is adjusted to the direction of regional development and potential areas concerned. Needs of the area for example the need to:
a. Preserve and develop the culture of the area.
b. Improve the capacity and skills in specific areas,
according to the state of the regional economy.
c. Improve the mastery of English for everyday purposes,
and support the empowerment of individuals in conducting
further learning (lifelong learning).
d. Enhance entrepreneurship skills.
2. The scope of the content / type of local content, can be: the local language, the english language, local arts, skills and local crafts, traditional
customs, and knowledge of various characteristics of the natural environment
around, and things that are deemed necessary by the regional concerned.

1.2. LESSON CONTENT OF LOCAL CURRENCY
The implementation of the school curriculum has implications for the conduct
KBM number of subjects, where almost all subjects had
has the Competence Standard and Basic Competency for each
lessons. As for the Subject which is the Local Content
curricular activities that should be taught in the classroom does not have a standard
The basis of competence and competence. This makes it an obstacle for
schools to implement the Local Content Subjects. Development
Basic standards of competence and competence in the subject content
Local is not an easy task, because they have prepared a variety of
thing to be able to develop Local Content Subjects
There are two patterns of Subject Local Content development in order
facing the implementation of the SBC. The pattern is:
A. LOCAL CONTENT DEVELOPMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH CONDITIONS
CURRENT SCHOOL

Step in the development of Local Content for the Subject schools that are not able to develop, step
These are:
1. Local Content Analysis of Subject in school. Whether
still viable and relevant Local Content Subjects applied in
School?
2. If the Local Content Subjects who applied at the school
still fit for use the next activity is to change
Subject to the Local Content
3. When the Subject Local Content that is no longer feasible to
applied, then the school can use the Subject Content
From other local schools or continue to use the Lesson
Local Content offered by the Department or developed
local content is more appropriate.
B. LOCAL CONTENT DEVELOPMENT IN SBC
1. Process Development
Subjects of local content development is fully addressed by schools and school committees that require
professionally in planning, managing, and implement them. Thus in addition to supporting
regional development and national development, planning, management, as well as attention to the implementation of local content balance the level of the education curriculum. Professional handling of local content are the sole responsible stakeholders and the school committee schools.
Local Content Development Subjects by the school and the committee school can be done by following these steps:

a.Identify state and local needs
b. Determine the function and composition or the composition of local content
c. Identifying local content study materials
d. Determining Subject Local Content
e. Develop and Competency Basic Competency Standards and
syllabus, with reference to the Content Standards set by BSNP
Further described as follows:
a. Identify state and local needs.
This activity is carried out to examine and assess various circumstances and needs of the region concerned. The data can be obtained from the various parties involved in the concerned as Government / Bappeda, vertically related agencies, Universities, and business / industry. Local circumstances as mentioned above can be viewed from areas of potential
concerned which include social, economic, cultural, and natural wealth. Local needs can be determined among other from:
1) the relevant regional development plans including
regional development priorities, both long development
Short, long-term development, and development
sustainable development (sustainable development);
2) Development of employment including the type kemampuankemampuan
and the skills required;
3) Aspiration of the public regarding conservation and
regional development, as well as nature conservation and
empowerment
b. Determine the function and composition or the composition of local content
Based on studies from several sources such as the above can be
obtained various kinds of needs. Various types of these needs
may reflect the function of local content in the area, among others
to:
1) To preserve and develop the culture of the area;
2) Improve skills in particular occupations;
3) Improve the ability of self-employed;
4) Increase the mastery of English for purposes of day-to-day;
c. Determining the study materials with local content
This is essentially to assess and review the various possibility of local content that can be raised as a
assessment in accordance with the circumstances and needs of the school.
Determination of the local content of study materials based on criteria the following:
1) Compliance with the development of learners;
2) The ability and availability of teacher educators required;
3) Availability of facilities and infrastructure
4) Does not conflict with the religious and noble values

5) Does not cause social unrest and security
6) Feasibility relates to the implementation of the school;
7) Others can be developed in accordance with local conditions and situations.
       d. Determining Subject Local Content
Based on the study material of local content can be determined learning activities. This learning activity in essentially designed to study materials with local content can be provide sufficient knowledge, skills and behaviors to learners so that they have a solid knowledge about the environmental conditions and community needs in accordance with values prevailing in the region and support sustainability of regional development and national development. This activity is in the form of curricular activities to develop
competencies that are tailored to the characteristics, potential areas, and prospects for regional development including the areas of excellence, that the material can not be grouped into the eye
lessons there. A series of learning activities been determined by the school and the school committee then
determined by the school and the school committee to serve as a name local content subject. The substance of local content is determined by the educational unit.
e. Develop and Competency Basic Competency Standards and
syllabus, with reference to the Content Standards set by
BSNP.

1) Development of Basic Competency Standards and Competencies is the first step in making the subject content to be implemented in local schools. The measures in developing standards of competence and
basic competencies are as follows:
a) Development of Competency Standards
Competence standard is to determine competency
based on the material as a base of knowledge.
b) Development of Basic Competencies
Basic competencies are competencies that must be controlled by the students. This determination is done by involving teacher, a field of study, experts from other agencies as appropriate.
2) Development of a common syllabus includes:
a) Develop indicators
b) Identify the learning materials
c) Develop learning activities
d) The allocation of time
e) Development of assessment
f) Determining the Source of Learning
These steps can refer to the preparation of syllabus subjects.

2. Involved parties in Development
School and the school committee has full authority in develop the local content program. If deemed not to have HR in developing the school and the school committee can in cooperation with the Ministry of Education with elements such as Team Curriculum developers (TPK) in the region, the Institute of Quality Assurance Education (LPMP), universities and institutions / agencies outside Ministry of Education, for example, local government / Bapeda, Office of the Department Another related, business / industry, community leaders. Roles, duties and responsibilities are as a general TPK following:
a. Identify the circumstances and needs of each area;
b. Determine the composition or arrangement of the type of local content;
c. Studies identify the local content of materials in accordance with state and needs of each area;
d. Determine the priorities of local content study materials that will implemented;
e. Develop local content syllabus and the curriculum other local content, done with school, referring to
the Content Standards set by BSNP
The Role of Higher Education and LPMP among others, provide guidance
and technical assistance in:
a. Identify and describe the circumstances, potential, and
environmental needs into the composition of local content;
b. Determine the scope of each study materials / lesson;
c. Determine appropriate teaching methods to the level
development of learners and types of study materials / lessons
The role of institutions / agencies outside the Ministry of Education in general is:
a. Provide information on potential areas that include
social, economic, cultural, natural wealth and resources
people in the area concerned, as well as priority
regional development in various sectors associated with
human resources required;
b. Gives an overview of the capabilities and skills required in specific sectors;
c. Contribute ideas, considerations, and energy
in determining the priorities of local content in accordance with the values
and local norms.
3. Signs
Here are the guidelines to be considered in the implementation local content.
a. Schools are able to develop Competency Standards and Basic syllabus and its competence to carry out the eyes local content subject. If schools have not been able to develop competencies and Competency Standards Association along with the school syllabus to implement the local content  based on the activities planned by the school, or may seek assistance from the nearest school still in the area. If multiple schools in one regions have not been able to develop can ask for help TPK area, or ask for help from LPMP the province.
b. Study materials should be appropriate to developmental level learners which includes the development of knowledge and way of thinking, emotional, and social learners. Implementation teaching and learning activities organized in such a way as to not learners burdensome and does not interfere with mastery the national curriculum. Therefore, in the implementation avoided the local content of homework (PR).
c. Teaching program should be developed with a view proximity to the students that includes physically close and psychologically. Physically close to the point contained in neighborhood and school students, while psychologically close to the point that the study material easily understood by the ability to think and digest age-appropriate information. To that end, teaching materials should be formulated based on the principles of learning, namely: (1) dotted starting from concrete things to abstract, (2) developed from the
known to the unknown, (3) from long experience to new experiences, (4) of the easy / simple to more
difficult / complicated. In addition the study material / lesson should be meaningful for students is beneficial because it helps learners in everyday life.
d. Study materials / lesson should provide flexibility for teachers in selecting methods of teaching and learning resources such as books and resource persons. In terms of learning resources, teachers
expected to develop appropriate learning resources by exploiting the potential in the school environment, for example with the use of land / garden school, ask for help from related agency or business / industrial (employment) or community leaders. In addition the teacher should be able to choose and use strategies that involve active learners in teaching and learning, both mentally, physically, or social.
e. Allocation of time for study materials / lessons to local content number of weeks notice effective for subjects charge locally in each semester.

                2. Understanding Personal Development in Schools

Development of self is an educational activity outside the subject as an integral part of the curriculum of the school / madrasah.
Activities of self-development is the formation of character and personality of the efforts of students who carried out through counseling services relating to personal andsocial life, learning activities, and career development, as well as extra curricular activities.
For vocational education units, self-development activities, particularly counseling services are aimed to the development of creativity and career.
For special education units, counseling services emphasize improving life skills according to the specific needs of learners.

General Purpose
Self-development aims to provide opportunities for learners to develop and express themselves in accordance with the needs, potential, talents, interests, conditions andprogress of learners, taking into account the condition of the school / madrasah.

Special Purpose
-talent
-interest
-creativity
-Competencies and habits of life
-The ability of religious life
-social skills
-ability to learn
-Insight and career planning
-Problem-solving capabilities
-autonomy

              

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OUT LINE

1.      PENGERTIAN KTSP

2.      HAKIKAT KTSP

3.      MENGEMBANGKAN KTSP

4.      CARA MENYUSUN KTSP

5.      PEMBELAJARAN DEAN PENILAIAN BERBASIS KTSP

6.      MUATAN LOKAL DAN PENGEMBANGAN DIRI

 

1.      PENGERTIAN KTSP

KTSP merupakan singkatan dari Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan adalah kurikulum yang dikembangkan dan dilaksanakan oleh setiap satuan pendidikan yang sudah siap dan mampu mengembangkannya. KTSP dikembangkan sesuai dengan satuan pendidikan, potensi sekolah/daerah, karakteristik sekolah/daerah, social budaya masyarakat setempat, dan karakteristik peserta didik. Sekolah dan komite sekolah, atau madrasah dan komite madrasah, mengembangkan KTSP dan silabus berdasarkan kerangka dasar kurikulum dan standar kompetensi lulusan, dibawah supervise dinas kabupaten/kota yang bertanggung jawab dibidang pendidikan di SD, SMP, SMA, dan SMK, serta Departemen yang menangani urusan pemerintahan dibidang agama untuk MI,MTs, MA, dan MAK.

2.      HAKIKAT KTSP

A.    Konsep Dasar KTSP

KTSP disusunn dan dikembangkan berdasarkan Undang-Undang No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional pasal 36 ayat 1) dan 2) sebagai berikut:

1.        Pengembangan kurikulum mengacu pada Standar Nasional Pendidikan untuk mewujudkan Tujuan Pendidikan Nasional.

2.      Kurikulum pada semua jenjang dan jenis pendidikan dikembangkan dengna prinsip diversivikasi sesuai dengan satuan pendidikan, potensi daerah, dan peserta didik.

 

Beberapa hal yang perlu dipahami dalam kaitannya dengan KTSP:

·         KTSP dikembangkan sesuai dengna kondisi satuan pendidikan, potensi dan karakteristik daerah, serta social budaya masyarakat setempat dan peserta didik.

·         Sekolah dan komite sekolah mengembangkan KTSP dan silabusnya berdasarkan kerangka dasar kurikulum dan standar kompetensi dasar lulusan, dibawah supervisi dinas pendidikan kabupaten/kota, dan departemen agama yang bertanggung jawab dibidang pendidikan.

·         KTSP untu setiap program studi dipergurun tinggi diembangkan dan ditetapkan oleh masing-masing perguruan tinggi dengan mengacu pada standar nasional pendidikan.

 

 

 

B.     TUJUAN KTSP

Secara umum tujuan diterapkannya KTSP adalah untuk memandirikan dan memberdayakan satuan pendidikan melalui pemberian kewenangan (otonomi) kepada lembaga pendidikan dan mendorong sekolah untuk melakukan pengambilan keputusan secara partisipatif dalam pengembangan kurikulum.

Secara khusus tujuan diterapkannya KTSP adalah untuk:

1.      Meningkatkan mutu pendidikan melalui kemandirian dan inisiatif sekolah dalam mengembangkan kurikulum, mengelola dan memberdayakan sumberdaya yang tersedia.

2.      Meningkatkan kepedulian warga sekolah dan masyarakat dalam pengembangan kurikulum melalui keputusan bersama.

3.      Meningkatkan kompetensi yang sehat antar satuan pendidikan tentang kualitas pendidikan yang akan dicapai.

 

C.    Landasan Pengembangan KTSP

KTSP dilandasi oleh undang-undang dan peraturan pemerintah sebagai berikut

·         Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang sisdiknas

·         PP Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan

·         Permendiknas No.22 Thaun 2006 tentang Standar Isi

·         Permendiknas  No. 23 tahun 2006 tentang Standar Kompetensi Lulusan

·         Pjermendiknas No. 24 Tahun 2006 tentang Pelaksanaan Permendiknas No. 22 dan 23.

 

D.    Karakteristik KTSP

1.      Pemberian Otonomi Luas Kepada Sekolah dan Satuan Pendidikan

KTSP memberikan otonomi luas kepada sekolah dan satuan pendidikan, disertai seperangkat tanggung jawab untuk mengembangkan kurikulum sesuai dengan kondisi setempat.

2.      Partisipasi Masyarakat dan Orang Tua yang Tinggi

Dalam KTSP, pelaksanaan kurikulum didukung oleh partisipasi masyarakat dan orang tua peserta didik dan masyarakat tidak hanya mendukung sekolah melalui bantuan keuangan, tetapi melalui komite sekolah dan dewan pendidikan merumuskan serta mengenbangkan pogram-program yng dapat meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran. Masyarakat dan orang tua menjalin kerjasama untuk membantu sekolah sebagai narasumber pada berbagai kegiatan sekolah untuk meningtkatkan kualitas pembelajaran.

3.      Kepemimpinan yang Demokratis dan Profesional

Dalam KTSP, pengembangan dan pelaksanaan kurikulumu didukung oleh aadanya kepemimpinan sekolah yang demokratis dan professional. Kepala sekolah dan guru-guru sebagai tenaga pelaksana kurikulum merupakan orng-orang yang memiliki kemampuan dan integritas professional. Kepala sekolah adalah menejer pendidikan professional yang direkrut komite sekolah utuk mengelola segala kegiatan sekolah berdasarkan kebijakan yang ditetapkan.

4.       Tim-Kerja yang kompak dan transparan

 Dalam KTSP, keberhasilan pengembangan kurikulum dan pembelajarang didukung oleh kinerja tim yang kompak dan transparan dari berbagai pihak yang terlibat dalam pembelajran. Dalam dewan pendidikan dan komite sekolah misalnya, pihak-pihak yang terlibat bekerjasama secara harmonis sesuai dengan posisinya masing-masing untuk mewujudkan sesuatu sekolah yang dapa tdibanggakan pleh semua pihak. Mereka tidak saling menunjukan kuasa atau paling berjasa, tetapi masing-masing berkontribusi terhadap upaya peningkatan mutu dan kinerja sekolah secara keseluruhan. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan:

1.      Sistem informasi yang jelas dan transparan

2.      Sistem penghargaan dan hukuman

 

E. Akankah KTSP mendongkrak Kualitas Pendidikan

 

Melalui KTSP , sekolah dan satuan pendidikan perlu dikembangkan menjadi lembaga yang diberi kewenagan dan tanggung jawab secara luas untuk mandiri, maju, dan berkembang berdasarkan strategi kebijakan menejemen pendidikan yang ditetapkan pemerintah. Persoalan yang muncul adalah apakah kondisi aktualo satuan pendidikan dan sekolah-sekolah di Indonesia beserta sumberdayanya sudah memiliki kesiapan untuk mengembangkan dan melaksanakan KTSP yang akan mengubah pola dan seistem pengembangan kurikulum? Lantas, mampukah KTSP mendongkrak kulaits pendidikan? Dan masih banyak persoalan lain yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pengembangan dan penerapan KTSP.

Sehubngan dengan itu, agar pengembangan dan penerapan KTSP mampu mendongkrak kualitas pendidikan, perlu didukung oleh perubahan mendasar dalam kebijakan pengelolaan sekolah yang menyangkut aspek-aspek berikut:

1.      Iklim pembelajaran yang kondusif

Pengembangan KTSP perlu didukung oleh iklim pembelajaran yang kondusif bagi tercapainya suasana yang aman, nyaman dan tertib, sehingga proses pembelajaran dapat berlangsung dengna tenang dan menyenangkan. Iklim yang demikian akan mendorong terwujudnya proses pembelajaran yang aktif, kreatif, efektif dan bermakna; yang lebih menekankan pada belajar mengetahui (learnign to know), belajar berkarya (learning to do), belajar menjadi diri sendiri (learning to be) dan belajar hidup bersama secara harmonis (learning to live together). Suasana tersebut akan memupuk tumbuhnya kemandirian dan berkurangnya ketergantungan dikalanagna warga sekolah, bersifat adaktif dan proaktif serta memilikii jiwa kewirausahaan tinggi (ulet, inovatif, dan berani mengambil resiko), tidak saja bagi peserta didik, tetapi juga guru dan pimpinannya. Untuk kepentingan tersebut, sukses KTSP perlu didukung oleh ahli kurikulum, dilengkapi oleh sarana dan prasarana pembelajaran, serta diperkaya oleh sumber-sumbel belajar yang memadai.

 

2.      Otonomi sekolah dan satuan pendidikan

Dalam pengembangan kurikulum sentralisasi, sekolah dan satuan pendidikan sebagai pelaksana kurikulum, hampir tidak pernah diberi kewenangnan untuk memnentukan kut\rikulum atau sistem evaluasi pembelajaran sesuai dengna kondisi dan kebutuhan peserta didik secara aktual. Sekolah hanya berfungsi sebagai pelaksana kurikulum dari pusat, meskipun kadang-kadang tidak sesuai dengan kondisi dan kebutuhan peserta didik.

Dalam KTSP, kebijakan pengembangan kurikulum dan pembelajaran beserta sistem evaluasinya disentralisasikan disekolah dan satuan pendidikan, sehingga pengembangan kurikulum diharapkan sesuai dengan kebutuhan peserta didik dan masyarakat secara lebih fleksibel. Pemerintah pusat, dalam hal ini BSNP, Depdiknas dan Depag hanya menetapkan standar nasional, yang mengembangkannya diserahkan kepada madrasah atau sekolah. Dengan demikian desentralisasi kebijakan dalam pengembangan kurikulum dan pembelajaran beserta sistem evaluasinya merupakan prasyarat untuk mengimplementasikan KTSP.

 

3.      Kewajiban sekolah dan satuan pendidikan

KTSP yang menawarkan keleluasan dalam pengembangan kurikulum, memiliki potensi besar dalam menciptakan kepala sekolah/ madrasah, guru dan pengelola satuan pendidikan secara profesional. Oleh karena it, pelaksanaan KTSP perku disetai seperangkat kewajiban, serta monitoring dan tuntutan pertanggungjawaban (akuntabel) yang relatif tinggi, untuk menjamin bahwa sekolah selain memiliki otonomi juga mempunyai kewajiban untuk melaksanakan kebijakan pemerintah dan memenuhi harapan masyarakat. Dengan demikian sekolah dan satuan pendidikan dituntut mampu mengembangkan kurikulum dan mengelola sumberdaya secara transparan, demokratis dan bertanggungjawab baik terhadap masyarakat maupunn pmerintah, dalam rangka meningkatkan kapasitas pelayanan dan kualitas terhadap peserta didik.

 

4.      Kepemimpinan Sekolah yang Demokratis dan Profesional

Pelaksanaan KTSP memerlukan sosok kepala sekolah/madrasah yang memiliki kemampuan menejerial yang tinggi, serta demokratis dalam proses pengambilan keputusan-keputusan mendasar. Pada mumnya, kepala sekolah di Indonesia belum dapat dikatakan sebagai “maanajer profesional”, karena sistem pengangkatan selama ini tidak didasarkan pada kemampuan  atau pendidikan profesioanal, tetapi lebih pada pengalaman menjadi guru. Hal ini disinyalir pula oleh laporan Bank Dunia (1999), bahwa salah satu penyebab semakin menurunnya mutu pendidikan persekolahan di Indonesia adalah “kurang profesionalnya” para kepala sekolah sebagai manajer pendidikan ditingkat lapangan. Dengan demikian, pelaksanaan KTSP memerlukan perubahan sistem pengankatan kepala sekolah/madrasah dari pengangkatan kiarena pengangkatan atau pengalaman kerja sebagai guru kepada pengangkatan berdasarkan kemampuan dan keterampilan secara profesional.

Dalam KTSP, kepala sekolah dan guru merupakan “the key person” keberhasilan pelaksanaan “pembelajaran”. Ia adlah orang yang diberi tanggung jawab untukmengembangkan dan melaksanakan kurikulum untuk mewujudkan pembelajaran yang berkualitas sesuai visi, misi dan tujuan sekolah. Oleh karena itu, dalam implementasi KTSP, kepala sekolah dituntut untuk memilikii visi dan wawasan yang luas tentang pembelajaran yang efektif serta kemempuan profesional yang memadai dalam bidang perencanaan, kepemimpinan, manajerial dan supervisi pendidikan. Ia juga harus memiliiki kemampuan untuk membangun kerjasama yang harmonis dengan berbagai pihak yang terkait dengan kurikulum.

 

5.      Revitalisasi partisipasi masyarakat dan orang tua

Secara historis sekolah merupakan sistem pendidikan yang berkembang dari, oleh dan untuk masyarakat, sehingga masyarakat memiliki tanggung jawab yang sangat besar terhadap eksistensinya. Namun dalam perkembangan berikutnya, terutama sekolah yang dikellola oleh pemerintah (negeri) seolah-olah berada diluar masyarakat dan orang tua. Sehingga partisipasi mereka menjadi pudar.

Dalam pengembangan KTSP, partisipasi aktif berbagai kelompok masyarakat dan pihak orangtua dlam perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan dan pengawasan program-program sekolah/madrsah perlu dibangkitkan kembali. Wujud keterlibatan, bukan hanya dalam bantuan finansial , tetapi lebih dari itu, dalam pemikiran-pemikiran untuk penignkatan kualitas pembelajaran. Masyarakat dan orang tua harus disadarkan bahwa sekolah merupakan lembaga pendidikan yang perlu didukung oleh semua pihak. Prestasi keberhasilan sekolah harus menjadi kebanggaan masyarakat dan lingkungannya. Ini berarti, pelaksanaan KTSP memerlukan kesadaran dan partisipasi aktif semua pihak yang terkait dengan pendidikan disekolah. Masalahnya, siapa yang harus mengembangkan partisipasi orangtua dan masyarakat? jawaban praktisnya adalah bahwa pihak sekolah dalam hali ini kepala sekolah, guru dan tenaga kependidikan yang lain, harus menggunakan berbagai strategi dan daya untuk mendorong masyarakat dan orang tua menjadi bagian integral dari sistem sekolah, beserta seluruh kegiatannya.

 

6.      Menghidupkan serta meluruskan KKG dan MGMP

Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGPG) atau Musyawarah Guru Bidang Studi (MGBS) dan Kelompok Kerja Guru (KKG) merupakan organisasi guru, yang pada saat ini keberadannya pada sebagian sekolah dan satuan pendidikan sudah mati suri. Dikatakan demikian, karena kebanyakan organisaasi tersebut pada saat ini tidak memiliki dan tidak melakukan program kerja sesuai dengan tujuan awalnya. Tujuan MGMP dan KKG terutama adakah untuk meningkatkan kompetensi dan profesionalisme guru dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan. Namun demikian dalam pelaksanaannya, kegiatan organisaasi tersebut banyak yang perlu diluruskan. Misalnya organisasi tersebut hanya digunakan sebagai ajang arisan, bahkan tidak sedikit yang menggunakan organisasi tersebut hanya untuk membicarakan jadwal less bagi peserta didik menjelang ujian.

Oleh karena itu, dalam rangkan menignkatkan kualitas penidikan dinegeri ini dapat dilakukan dengna menghidupkan dan meluruskan MGMP dan KKG. Bagi yang hampir mati suri karena tidak ada kegiatan, perlu dihidupkan kembal, sementara bagi yang menghidupkan kegiatan tetapi melenceng atau diluar rel perlu diluruskan dan diingatkan agar kembali kejalan yang lurus. Yakni upaya meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan tanpa merugikan peserta didik  atau kelompok lain.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah guru pada sekolah-sekolah dewasa ini umumnya sudah cukup memadai, tetapi suasana belajar belum cukup kondusif akibat metode mengajar guru yang kurang bervariasi. Persoalan tersebut dapat diatsi melalui MGMP, trmasuk cara mengembangkan KTSP dan komponen-komponen lainnya, serta mencari alternatif pembelajaran yang tepat dan menemukan berbagai variasi metode, dan variasi media untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran.

 

7.      Kemandirian guru

Disamping mengikuti MGMP dan KKG untuk menemukan solusi terhadap berbagai masalah dalam pembelajaran, dalam KTSP guru juga harus mampu bekerja mandiri untuk memperbaiki diri dalam pembelajaran. Hal ini penting agar ia benar-benar menjadi guru yang mampu diggugu dan ditiru. Sehingga tidak saja mampu emngembangkan KTSP tetapi juga melaksanakannya dalam pembelajaran secara efektif dan meyenangkan.

 

 

F. Asumsi yang Mendasari KTSP

Seperti telah diuraikan pada bahasan diatas, bahwa KTSP adalah kurikulum operasional yang disusun dan dilaksanakan oleh masing-masing satuan pendidikan. Penyusunan KTSP dilakukan oleh satuan pendidikan dengan memperhatikan dan berdasarkan standar kompetensi pendidikan (guru, kepala sekolah, komite sekolah, dan dewan pendidikan) pada satuan pendidikan, disekolah dan daerah masing-masing.

Mengingata bahwa penyusunan KTSP diserahkan kepada satuan pendidikan, sekolah dan daerah masing-masing, diasumsikan bahwa guru kepala sekolah, komite sekolah, dan dewan pendidikan akan sangant bersahabat dengan kurikulum tersebut. Diasumsikan demikian, karena mereka terlibat secara langsung dalam proses penyusunannya, dan mereka (guru) yang akan melaksanakannya dalam proses pembelajaran dikelas, sehingga memahami betul apa yang harus dilakukan dalam pembelajaran sehubungan dengan kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang dan tantangan yang dimiliki oleh setiap satuan pendidikan didaerah masing-masing. Mereka pula yang akan melakukan penilaian terhadap hasil pembelajaran yang dilakukannya, sehingga keberkasilan pembelajaran merupakan tanggungjawab guru secara profesional.

Keterlibatan guru, kepala sekolah, masyarakat yang tergabung dlaam komite sekolah dan dewan pendidikan dalam pengambilan keputusan akan mengembangkan rasa kepemilikan yang lebih tinggi terhadap kurikulum, sehingga mendorong mereka untuk mendayagunakan sumber daya yang ada seefisien mungin untuk mencapai hasil yang optimal. Konsep ini didasarkan pda Self Determination Theory yang menyatakan bahwa jika seseorang memiliki kekuasaan dalam pengambilan suatu keputusan, maka akan memiliki tanggung jawab yang besar untuk melaksanakan keputusan tersebut.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cloud Callout: Sekolah dan komite sekolah mengembangkan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan dan silabusnya berdasarkan kerangka dasar kurikulum dan standar kompetensi kelulusan,di bawah supervisi dinas pendidikan kabupaten/kota, dan departemen agama yang bertanggungjawab di bidang pendidikan. (SNP Pasal 17 ayat 2)MENGEMBANGKAN KTSP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BAGAN PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM

Konteks Pendidikan

Kebangkitan Islam, Clean and Good Governance, Otonomi Daerah, Millenium Gols 2015 (Globalisasi), Demokratisasi, Pembangunan Berkelanjutan, Perkembangan IPTEKS, serta Ekonomi Berbasis Spiritual, Moral, dan Intelektual.

 

 

 

      

 

KURIKULUM NASIONAL

STANDAR KOMPETENSI

·         SKL

·         SK-SMP

·         SK-MP

·         KD

STANDAR ISI

·         KERANGKA DASAR

·         STRUKTUR KURIKULUM

·         BEBAN BELAJAR

·         KALENDER PENDIDIKAN

KURIKULUM AKTUAL PROSES PEMBELAJARAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A.    Pengembangan Kurikulum

1.      Pengembangan Kurikulum Tingkat Nasionnal

Dalam kaitannya dengan KTSP, pengembangan kurikulum tingkat nasional dilakukan dalam rangka mengembangkan Standar Nasional Pendidikan, yang pada saat ini mencakup Standar Kompetensi Nasional (SKL) dan Standar Isi (SI) untuk setiap satuan pendidikan pada masing-masing jenjang dan jenis pendidikan, terutama pada jalur pendidikan sekolah.

2.      Pengambangan KTSP

a.       Menganalisis, dan mengambangkan standar kompetensi kelulusan (SKL), dan Standar Isi (SI).

b.      Merumuskan visi dan misi, serta merumuskan tujuan pendidikan pada tingkat satuan pendidikan.

c.       Berdasarkan SKL, standar isi, visi, dan misi, serta tujuan pendidikan pada tingkat satuan pendidikan di atas selanjutnya dikembangkan bidang studi-bidang studi yang akan diberikan untuk merealisasikan tujuan tersebut.

d.      Mengembangkan dan mengidentifikasi tenaga-tenaga kependidikan (guru dan non guru) sesuai dengan kualifikasi yang diperlukan, dengan berpedoman pada standar tenaga kependidikan yang ditetapkan BSNP.

e.       Mengidentifikasi fasilitas pembelajaran yang diperlukan untuk member kemudahan belajar, sesui dengan standar sarana dan prasarana pendidikan yang ditetapkan BSNP.

 

3.      Pengembangan silabus

a.       Mengidentifikasi standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar serta tujuan setiap bidang studi.

b.      Mengembangkan kompetensi dasar dan materi standar yang diperlukan dalam pembelajaran.

c.       Mendeskripsikan kompetensi dasar serta mengelompokkannya sesuai dengan ruang lingkup dan urutannya.

d.      Mengembanngkan indicator untuk setiap kompetensi serta criteria pencapaiannya, dan mengelompokkannya sesuai dengan ranah pengetahuan, pemahaman, kemampuan (keterampilan), nilai, dan sikap.

e.       Mengembangkan instrument penilaian yang sesuai dengan indicator pencapaian kompetensi.

 

4.      Pengembangan RPP

5.      Kurikulum Aktual (Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran)

B.     Prinsip Pengembangan KTSP

1.      Berpusat pada potensi, perkembangan, serta kebutuhan peserta didik dan lingkungannya.

2.      Beragam dan terpadu

3.      Tanggap terhadap perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, dan seni

4.      Relevan dengan kebutuhan

5.      Menyeluruh dan berkesinambungan

6.      Belajar sepanjang hayat

7.      Seimbang antara kepentingan global, nasional dan local

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CARA MENYUSUN KTSP

            KTSP harus dikembangkan sesuai dengan visi, misi, tujuan, kondisi,dan cirri khas satuan pendidikan. Oleh karena itu, dalam pelaksanaannya penyusunan KTSP mencakup komponen sebagai berikut : Pengembangan visi dan misi, Perumusan tujuan pendidikan satuan pendidikan, Analisis konteks (untuk memotret kondisi, dan cirri khas satuan pendidikan), Pengembangan struktur dan muatan KTSP, Pengembangan kalender pendidikan, Pengembangan silabus, pengembangan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP).

A.    Proses Menyusun KTSP

Proses penyusunan KTSP perlu diawali dengan melakukan analisis konteks terhadap hal-hal sebagai berikut.

·         Analisis potensi, kekuatan, dan kelemahan yang ada di sekolah dan satuan pendidikan, baik yang berkaitan dengan peserta didik, guru, kepala sekolah dan tenaga administrasi, sarana prasarana, serta pembiayaan, dan program-program yang ada di sekolah.

·         Analisis peluang dan tantangan yang ada di masyarakat dan lingkungan sekitar. Yang bersumber dari komite sekolah, dewan pendidikan, dinas pendidikan, asosiasi profesi dunia industri dan dunia kerja, serta sumber daya alam dan social budaya.

·         Mengidentifikasi standar isi dan standar kompetensi lulusan sebagai acuan dalam penyusunan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan.

Untuk kepentingan tersebut, sedikitnya ada tujuh langkah yang harus dilaksanakan dalam proses penyusunan KTSP.

1.      Menentukan focus atau kompetensi dasar,

2.      Menentukan variable atau indicator,

3.      Menentukan standar,

4.      Membandingkan standar dan kompetensi,

5.      Menentukan kesenjangan yang terjadi,

6.      Merencanakan target untuk mencapai standar, dan

7.      Merumuskan cara-cara dan program untuk mencapai target.

 

B.     Mengembangkan Komponen KTSP

Dalam garus besarnya KTSP memiliki enam komponen penting sebagai berikut.

·         Visi dan misi

·         Tujuan pendidikan satuan pendidikan

·         Menyusun kalender pendidikan

·         Struktur muatan KTSP

·         Silabus

·         RPP

1.      Visi dan Misi Satuan Pendidikan

Dalam menetapkan visi dan misi satuan pendidikan, kepala sekolah harus terlebih dahulu memahami visi itu sendiri. Oleh karena itu, tugas utama kepala sekolah adalah menyisihkan waktunya agar dapat mengkomunikasikan visi tersebut ke seluruh jajaran dan tingkat manajemen.

Dalam mengembangkan visinya, kepala sekolah harus mampu mendayagunakan kekuatan-kekuatan yang relevan bagi kegiatan internal sekolah.

2.      Tujuan Pendidikan Satuan Pendidikan

Dalam pengembangan KTSP, satuan pendidikan harus menyusun program peningkatan mutu yang mencakup tujuan, sasaran dan target yang akan dicapai, untuk program jangka pendek maupun program jangka panjang (strategis).

Tujuan pendidikan satuan pendidikan merupakan acuan dalam mengembangkan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan (KTSP).

3.      Menyusun Kalender Pendidikan

Dalam rangka pengembangan KTSP setiap satuan pendidikan harus menyusun kalender pendidikan sesuai dengan kebutuhan daerah, karakteristik sekolah, kebutuhan peserta didik dan masyarakat, dengan memperhatikan kalender pendidikan sebagaimana tercantum dalam standar isi.

Dalam penyusunan kalender pendidikan, pengembang kurikulum harus mampu menghitung jam belajar efektif untuk membentuk kompetensi dasar yang harus dimiliki oleh peserta didik. Penyusunan kaender pendidikan selama satu tahun pelajaran mengacu pada efisiensi, efektifitas, dan hak-hak peserta didik.

 

4.      Struktur Muatan KTSP

Struktur KTSP ialah sebagai berikut :

a.       Mata pelajaran

Mata pelajaran dan alokasi waktu untuk masing-masing tingkat satuan pendidikan bisa dilihat dalam struktur kurikulum yang tercantum dalam standar isi.

b.      Muatan local

Muatan local adalah kegiatan kurikuler untuk mengembangkan kompetensi yang sesuai dengan kondisi, karakteristik dan potensi daerah.

c.       Kegiatan pengembangan diri

Kegiatan pengembangan diri bertujuan memberikan kesempatan kepada peserta didik untuk mengembangkan dan mengekspresikan diri sesuai dengan potensi yang dimilikinya.

d.      Pengaturan beban belajar

Beban belajar dalam system paket digunakan oleh tingkat satuan pendidikan, SD, SMP, SMA sederajat yang masih dalam tingkat kategori standar.

Beban belajar Sistem Kredit Semester (SKS) dapat juga digunakan oleh SD,SMP,SMA sederajat yang berkatagori mandiri dan juga standar.

e.       Kenaikan kelas, penjurusan, dan kelulusan

Kenaikan kelas, penjurusan, dan kelulusan mengacu kepada standar penilaian yang dikembangkan oleh BNSP.

f.       Pendidikan kecakapan hidup

Kurikulum untuk SD, SMP, dan SMA sederajat dapat memasukkan pendidikan kecakapan hidup, yang mencakup kecakapan pribadi, kecakapan social, kecakapan akademik, dan kecakapan vokasional.

g.      Pendidikan berbasis keunggulan local dan global

Kurikulum untuk semua satuan tingkat pendidikan dapat memasukkan pendidikan berbasis keunggulan local dan global. Pendidikan ini merupakan bagian dari semua mata pelajaran yang dapat diperoleh oleh peserta didik selama menempuh jenjang pendidikannya. 

 

5.      Silabus

Silabus merupakan rencana pembelajaran pada suatu kelompok mata pelajaran dengan tema tertentu, yang mencakup standar kompetensi, kompetensi dasar, materi pembelajaran, indicator, penilaian, alokasi waktu, dan sumber belajar yang dikembangkan oleh setiap satuan pendidikan.

 

6.      RPP

RPP adalah rencana yang menggambarkan prosedur dan manajemen pembelajaran untuk mencapai satu atau lebih kompetensi dasar yang ditetapkan dalam standar isi dan dijabarkan dalam silabus.

C.     Mekanisme Penyusunan KTSP

1.      Pembentukan tim kerja

Tim pengembang KTSP terdiri dari guru, kepala sekolah, guru pembimbing, komite sekolah, orang tua serta peserta didik.

2.      Penyusunan draft

Setelah tim terbentuk, selanjutnya mengembangkan draft KTSP yang lengkap mulai dari perumusan visi dan misi sampai dengan RPP.

3.      Refisi dan finalisasi

Penyusunan KTSP merupakan bagian dari kegiatan perencanaan sekolah. Dan kegiatan ini dapat berbentuk rapat kerja yang dilaksanakan sebelum tahun ajaran baru.

D.    Pengesahan KTSP

Dokumen KTSP SD, SMP, SMA dinyatakan berlaku oleh kepala sekolah serta diketahui oleh komite sekolah dan dinas kabupaten atau kota yang bertanggungjawab di bidang pendidikan.

            Dokumen KTSP MI, MTs, MA dinyatakan berlaku oleh kepala madrasah serta diketahui oleh komite madrasah dan oleh departemen yang menangani urusan pemerintahan di bidang agama.

            Dokumen KTSP SDLB, SMPLB, dan SMALB dinyatakan berlaku oleh kepala sekolah serta diketahui oleh komite sekolah dan dinas provinsi yang bertanggungjawab di bidang pendidikan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PEMBELAJARAN DAN PENILAIAN BERBASIS KTSP

 

Pembelajaran dan penilaian adalah operasionalisasi konsep KTSP yang masih bersifat tertulis menjadi aktual dalam bentuk kegiatan pembelajara.

Pembelajaran berbasis KTSP sedikitnya dipengaruhi oleh tiga faktor berikut:

1.      Karakteristik KTSP

2.      Strategi pembelajran

3.      Karekteristik pengguna kurikulum

 

A.    Pengembangan Program

 

Pengembangan KTSP meliputi pengembangan program tahunan, program semester, program pokok bahasan, program mingguan dan harian, program pengayaan dan remedial, serta program bimbingan dan konseling.

a)      Program Tahunan

Program tahunan merupakan program umum setiap mata pelajaran untuk setiap kelas yang dikembangkan oleh guru mata pelajran yang bersangkutan.

b)      Program Semester

Program semester berisikan garis-gars besar mengenai hal-hal yang hendak dilaksanakan dan dicapai dalam semester tersebut.

c)      Program Mingguan dan Harian

Program ini merupakan penjabaran dari program semester dan program modul.

d)     Program Pengayaan dan Remedial

Program ini merupakan pelegkap dan penjabaran dari program mingguan dan harian.

 

 

 

B.     Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran

 

Pada umumnya pelaksanaan pembelajran berbasis KTSP meliputi tiga hal; pre tes, pembentukan kompetensi, dan pos tes.

 

1.      Pre tes (tes awal)

 

Fungsi dilaksanakannya pre tes adalah;

·         Untuk menyiapkan peserta didik dalam proses belajar

·         Untuk mengetahui tingkat kemajuan peserta didik

·         Untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal yang dimiliki peserta didik

·         Untuk mengetahui dari mana seharusnya proses pembelajaran dimulai

 

2.      Pembentukan Kompetensi

 

Pembentukan kompetensi merupakan kegiatan inti dari pelaksanaan proses pembelajran, yakni bagaimana kompetensi dibentuk ada peserta didik, dan bagaimana tujuan-tujuan belajar direalisasikan.

 

 

3.      Post tes

 

Untuk mengukur keberhasilan pelaksanaan pembelajaran maka diperlukan tes yang akan mengukur ketercapaian kompetensi dalam pembelajran dan tes itulah yang dinamakan pos tes. Pos tes memiliki banyak kegunaan diantaranya:

 

·         Untuk mengetahui tingkat penguasaan peserta didik terhadap kompetensi yang telah ditentukan

·         Utuk mengetahui kompetensi dan tujuan-tujuan yang dapat dikuasai oleh peserta didik

·         Untuk mengetahui peserta didik yang perlu mengikuti program pengayaan dan remedial

·         Sebagai bahan acuan untuk melakukan perbaikan terhadap kegiatan pembelajaran dan pembentukan kompetensi yang telah dilaksanakan.

 

C.    Penilaian Hasil Belajar

 

Penilaian hasil belajar dalam KTSP dapat dilakukan dengan penilaian kelas, tes  kemampuan dasar, penilaian akhir satuan pendidikan dan sertifikasi, dan penilaian program.

 

1)      Penilaian Kelas

 

Penialain kelas dilakukan dengan ulangan harian, ulangan umum, dan ulangan akhir. Ulangan harian dilakukan minimal tiga kali dalam setiap semester. Ulangan umum dilaksanakan secara bersamaan untuk kelas paralel, dan pada umumnya dilakukan ulangan umum bersama, baik tingkay rayon, kecamatan, ataupun tingkat kabupaten.  Ujian akhir dilakukan pada akhir program pendidikan.

 

2)      Tes Kemampuan Dasar

 

Tes kemampuan dasar dilakukan untuk mengetahui kemampuan membaca, menulis, dan berhitung yang diperlukan dalam rangka memperbaiki program pembelajaran.

 

3)      Penilaian Akhir Satuan Pendidikan dan Sertifikasi

 

Pada akhir semester dan tahun pelajran diselenggarakan kegiatan penilaian guna mendapatkan gambaran secara utuh dan menyeluruh mengenai ketuntasan belajar peserta didik dalam satuan waktu tertentu.

 

4)      Penilaian Program

 

Penialain program dilakukan oleh Departemen Pendidikan Nasioanal dan Dinas Pendidikan secara kontinu dan berkesinambungan. Penilaian program dilakukan untuk mengetahui kesesuaian KTSP dengan dasar, fungsi, dan tujuan pendidikan nasional, serta kesesuiannya dengan tuntutan pekembangan masyarakat, dan kemajuan zaman.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1. LOCAL CONTENT

A.Background
Indonesia is made up of various ethnic groups who have multicultural diversity (customs, manners, language, art, craft, skill areas, etc.) is characteristic of the enrich the values of the nation of Indonesia. Therefore diversity must be preserved and developed while maintaining the noble values of Indonesia through educational efforts. The introduction of environmental, social, and cultural
to students enabling them to better familiarize with its environment. The introduction and development of environmental through education directed to support quality improvement
human resources, and ultimately directed at improving ability learners.
Policies related to the inclusion of local content program Content Standards in Indonesia based on the fact that there diverse cultures. Schools where the education program executed are part of the community. Therefore, the education programs in schools need to provide a broad insight
on learners of specificity in their environment.
Content Standards which are all centrally organized may not be able
these include local content. So it is necessary to set eyes lessons based on local content.


B. Cornerstone
A. Law no. 22 of 1999 on Regional Governance
2. Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 Year 2003 on
The National Education System Article 37 paragraph (1) and Article 38 paragraph (2)
3. Indonesian Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005
on National Education Standards


C. Purpose
General Purpose
This guide may be a reference for the education unit SD / MI / SDLB,
SMP / MTs / SMPLB, SMA / MA / SMALB, and SMK / MAK in
Local Content development Subjects that will be implemented
at the level of the education is concerned.
Special Purpose
The course aims to provide local content provision
knowledge, skills and behaviors to students in order
they have a solid knowledge about the state of the environment and
community needs in accordance with applicable values prevailing in region and support the sustainability of regional development and
national development. More clearly so that learners can:
1. Recognize and become more familiar with the natural environment, social,
and culture,
2. Have the ability and skills provision as well as knowledge
the regions that are useful for themselves and the environment
society in general,
3. Have the attitude and behavior that is consistent with values
prevailing in the area, as well as preserving and
develop noble values of the local culture in order
support national development.


D. Understanding
The curriculum is a set of plans and arrangements regarding the purpose, content, and teaching materials and methods used as a guide organization of learning activities to achieve goals
certain education. SBC is the operational curriculum developed by and implemented in each educational unit. SBC consists of educational goals, level of the education, curriculum structure and unit level
education, educational calendar, and syllabus. Local charge is to develop curricular activities
competencies that are tailored to regional characteristics and potential, including the advantages, in that the material can not be grouped into the existing subjects. The substance of the charge of subjects
determined by the local education units, not limited to the eye literacy classes. Local content is part of the structure and content of the curriculum contained in the Content Standards in the curriculum of the educational unit. The existence of the subject is a form of local content providing education that is not centralized, in an effort to education in each region increases more
relevance to the circumstances and needs areas concerned. This is in line with efforts to improve the quality of education, so the existence of national support and local curriculum complement the national curriculum. Local content is a subject, so that the educational unit need to develop competencies and Competency Standards for Basic any type of local content is organized. Education units can be
organize a local content of subjects each semester. This means bahawa education units in one year can
held two subjects of local content


E. Scope
The scope of local content is as follows:
1. Scope of state and local requirements. Local circumstances is everything that there is a particular area which is basically related to the natural environment, socioeconomic environment, and
socio-cultural environment. Needs of the region is anything needed by people in an area, especially for
survival and increasing the level of community life, which is adjusted to the direction of regional development and potential areas concerned. Needs of the area for example the need to:
a. Preserve and develop the culture of the area.
b. Improve the capacity and skills in specific areas,
according to the state of the regional economy.
c. Improve the mastery of English for everyday purposes,
and support the empowerment of individuals in conducting
further learning (lifelong learning).
d. Enhance entrepreneurship skills.


2. The scope of the content / type of local content, can be: the local language, the english language, local arts, skills and local crafts, traditional
customs, and knowledge of various characteristics of the natural environment
around, and things that are deemed necessary by the regional concerned.

 

1.2. LESSON CONTENT OF LOCAL CURRENCY


The implementation of the school curriculum has implications for the conduct
KBM number of subjects, where almost all subjects had
has the Competence Standard and Basic Competency for each
lessons.
 As for the Subject which is the Local Content
curricular activities that should be taught in the classroom does not have a standard
The basis of competence and competence.
 This makes it an obstacle for
schools to implement the Local Content Subjects.
 Development
Basic standards of competence and competence in the subject content
Local is not an easy task, because they have prepared a variety of
thing to be able to develop Local Content Subjects
There are two patterns of Subject Local Content development in order
facing the implementation of the SBC.
 The pattern is:


A.
 LOCAL CONTENT DEVELOPMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH CONDITIONS
CURRENT SCHOOL

Step in the development of Local Content for the Subject schools that are not able to develop, step
These are:
1.
 Local Content Analysis of Subject in school. Whether
still viable and relevant Local Content Subjects applied in
School?
2.
 If the Local Content Subjects who applied at the school
still fit for use the next activity is to change
Subject to the Local Content
3.
 When the Subject Local Content that is no longer feasible to
applied, then the school can use the Subject Content
From other local schools or continue to use the Lesson
Local Content offered by the Department or developed
local content is more appropriate.


B.
 LOCAL CONTENT DEVELOPMENT IN SBC
1.
 Process Development
Subjects of local content development is fully addressed by schools and school committees that require
professionally in planning, managing, and implement them.
 Thus in addition to supporting
regional development and national development, planning, management, as well as attention to the implementation of local content balance the level of the education curriculum. Professional handling of local content are the sole responsible stakeholders and the school committee schools.
Local Content Development Subjects by the school and the committee school can be done by following these steps:

a.Identify state and local needs
b. Determine the function and composition or the composition of local content
c. Identifying local content study materials
d. Determining Subject Local Content
e. Develop and Competency Basic Competency Standards and
syllabus, with reference to the Content Standards set by BSNP

 

 


Further described as follows:
a. Identify state and local needs.
This activity is carried out to examine and assess various circumstances and needs of the region concerned. The data can be obtained from the various parties involved in the concerned as Government / Bappeda, vertically related agencies, Universities, and business / industry. Local circumstances as mentioned above can be viewed from areas of potential
concerned which include social, economic, cultural, and natural wealth. Local needs can be determined among other from:
1) the relevant regional development plans including
regional development priorities, both long development
Short, long-term development, and development
sustainable development (sustainable development);
2) Development of employment including the type kemampuankemampuan
and the skills required;
3) Aspiration of the public regarding conservation and
regional development, as well as nature conservation and
empowerment


b. Determine the function and composition or the composition of local content
Based on studies from several sources such as the above can be
obtained various kinds of needs. Various types of these needs
may reflect the function of local content in the area, among others
to:
1) To preserve and develop the culture of the area;
2) Improve skills in particular occupations;
3) Improve the ability of self-employed;
4) Increase the mastery of English for purposes of day-to-day;


c. Determining the study materials with local content
This is essentially to assess and review the various possibility of local content that can be raised as a
assessment in accordance with the circumstances and needs of the school.
Determination of the local content of study materials based on criteria the following:
1) Compliance with the development of learners;
2) The ability and availability of teacher educators required;
3) Availability of facilities and infrastructure
4) Does not conflict with the religious and noble values

       5) Does not cause social unrest and security
       6) Feasibility relates to the implementation of the school;
       7) Others can be developed in accordance with local conditions and situations.


       d. Determining Subject Local Content
Based on the study material of local content can be determined learning activities. This learning activity in essentially designed to study materials with local content can be provide sufficient knowledge, skills and behaviors to learners so that they have a solid knowledge about the environmental conditions and community needs in accordance with values prevailing in the region and support sustainability of regional development and national development. This activity is in the form of curricular activities to develop
competencies that are tailored to the characteristics, potential areas, and prospects for regional development including the areas of excellence, that the material can not be grouped into the eye
lessons there. A series of learning activities been determined by the school and the school committee then
determined by the school and the school committee to serve as a name local content subject. The substance of local content is determined by the educational unit.


e. Develop and Competency Basic Competency Standards and
syllabus, with reference to the Content Standards set by
BSNP.

1) Development of Basic Competency Standards and Competencies is the first step in making the subject content to be implemented in local schools. The measures in developing standards of competence and
basic competencies are as follows:
a) Development of Competency Standards
Competence standard is to determine competency
based on the material as a base of knowledge.
b) Development of Basic Competencies
Basic competencies are competencies that must be controlled by the students. This determination is done by involving teacher, a field of study, experts from other agencies as appropriate.


2) Development of a common syllabus includes:
    a) Develop indicators
    b) Identify the learning materials
    c) Develop learning activities
    d) The allocation of time
    e) Development of assessment
    f) Determining the Source of Learning
These steps can refer to the preparation of syllabus subjects.

 

 

2. Involved parties in Development
School and the school committee has full authority in develop the local content program. If deemed not to have HR in developing the school and the school committee can in cooperation with the Ministry of Education with elements such as Team Curriculum developers (TPK) in the region, the Institute of Quality Assurance Education (LPMP), universities and institutions / agencies outside Ministry of Education, for example, local government / Bapeda, Office of the Department Another related, business / industry, community leaders. Roles, duties and responsibilities are as a general TPK following:
a.
 Identify the circumstances and needs of each area;
b.
 Determine the composition or arrangement of the type of local content;
c.
 Studies identify the local content of materials in accordance with state and needs of each area;
d.
 Determine the priorities of local content study materials that will implemented;
e.
 Develop local content syllabus and the curriculum other local content, done with school, referring to
the Content Standards set by BSNP


The Role of Higher Education and LPMP among others, provide guidance
and technical assistance in:
a.
 Identify and describe the circumstances, potential, and
environmental needs into the composition of local content;
b.
 Determine the scope of each study materials / lesson;
c.
 Determine appropriate teaching methods to the level
development of learners and types of study materials / lessons


The role of institutions / agencies outside the Ministry of Education in general is:
a.
 Provide information on potential areas that include
social, economic, cultural, natural wealth and resources
people in the area concerned, as well as priority
regional development in various sectors associated with
human resources required;
b.
 Gives an overview of the capabilities and skills required in specific sectors;
c.
 Contribute ideas, considerations, and energy
in determining the priorities of local content in accordance with the values
and local norms.


3.
 Signs
Here are the guidelines to be considered in the implementation local content.
a.
 Schools are able to develop Competency Standards and Basic syllabus and its competence to carry out the eyes local content subject. If schools have not been able to develop competencies and Competency Standards Association along with the school syllabus to implement the local content  based on the activities planned by the school, or may seek assistance from the nearest school still in the area. If multiple schools in one regions have not been able to develop can ask for help TPK area, or ask for help from LPMP the province.


b.
 Study materials should be appropriate to developmental level learners which includes the development of knowledge and way of thinking, emotional, and social learners. Implementation teaching and learning activities organized in such a way as to not learners burdensome and does not interfere with mastery the national curriculum. Therefore, in the implementation avoided the local content of homework (PR).


c.
 Teaching program should be developed with a view proximity to the students that includes physically close and psychologically. Physically close to the point contained in neighborhood and school students, while psychologically close to the point that the study material easily understood by the ability to think and digest age-appropriate information. To that end, teaching materials should be formulated based on the principles of learning, namely: (1) dotted starting from concrete things to abstract, (2) developed from the
known to the unknown, (3) from long experience to new experiences, (4) of the easy / simple to more
difficult / complicated.
 In addition the study material / lesson should be meaningful for students is beneficial because it helps learners in everyday life.


d.
 Study materials / lesson should provide flexibility for teachers in selecting methods of teaching and learning resources such as books and resource persons. In terms of learning resources, teachers
expected to develop appropriate learning resources by exploiting the potential in the school environment, for example with the use of land / garden school, ask for help from related agency or business / industrial (employment) or community leaders.
 In addition the teacher should be able to choose and use strategies that involve active learners in teaching and learning, both mentally, physically, or social.


e.
 Allocation of time for study materials / lessons to local content number of weeks notice effective for subjects charge locally in each semester.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                2. Understanding Personal Development in Schools

 Development of self is an educational activity outside the subject as an integral part of the curriculum of the school / madrasah.
 Activities of self-development is the formation of character and personality of the efforts of students who carried out through counseling services relating to personal andsocial life, learning activities, and career development, as well as extra curricular activities.
 For vocational education units, self-development activities, particularly counseling services are aimed to the development of creativity and career.
For special education units, counseling services emphasize improving life skills according to the specific needs of learners.

General Purpose
Self-development aims to provide opportunities for learners to develop and express themselves in accordance with the needs, potential, talents, interests, conditions andprogress of learners, taking into account the condition of the school / madrasah.

Special Purpose
-talent
-interest
-creativity
-Competencies and habits of life
-The ability of religious life
-social skills
-ability to learn
-Insight and career planning
-Problem-solving capabilities
-autonomy

              

Puisi Pendidikan

PENDIDIKAN
HARGA MATI!!!

Matahari menyengat membakar kulit
Pagi ini….
Rasanya neraka telah pecah
Dan aku masih berjalan dipembatas waktu
Tubuhku membeku menelan resah

Dipenghujung harapan….
Masih ku lihat derai air mata yang tumpah
Menagis darah, menjerit, merintih
Dan aku masih termangu menatap senja

Orang-orangku
Indonesiaku……
Rintihan yang terdengar
Sampai kepalung lautan terdalam

Aku…. Aku siapa???….
Hanya seorang pemimpi
Yang melabuhkan harapan pada kepekaan waktu

Derai air mata kian membanjir
Lihat!!!!…. anak-anak disana kurasa mereka
Belum memiliki dosa
Namun akankah terbebani
Oleh hutang Negara yang kian waktu
Kian menjerat leher?

Indonesiaku…
Katanya Kaya… pulaunya terbentang dari Sabang hingga Merauke
Namun apa??
Indonesiaku dilanda krisis jiwa dan hati

Lihat!!!….
Berapa banyak air mata yang harus ku tumpahkan?
Berapa banyak air mata yang harus mereka tumpahkan?
Hanya demi sesuap nasi

Indonesiaku masih miskin?
Mengapa? Mengapa?…
Ku gantung pertanyaan ini dilangit-langit harapan
Kau lihat?…
Tertulis jelas jawabannya
“Karena masyarakat itu sendiri”
Ya memang karena masyarakat….
Yang tidak memeiliki mimpi
Untuk mengubah bangsanya sendiri
Mereka tidak mau peduli
Tentang arti pentingnya sebuah pendidikan
Dan aku masih termangu ditepian hari
Melihat jawaban yang menggantung
Dan ku buka tabir malam,
Melihat sahut bintang-gemintang
Pendidikan adalah harga mati bagi Indonesia!!!

Mataram, 02 Juni 2012

THE COMPETENCY MODEL USED IN ENGLISH CURRICULUM: CELCE MURCIA

THE COMPETENCY MODEL

USED IN ENGLISH CURRICULUM: CELCE MURCIA

I INTRODUCTION

Education is one of the important factors of the development process of every country. In Indonesia, according to the Law number 20, 2004 education is a consciously planned effort  to develop all potentials of the students through learning process. The aim of education is to develop the students’ potential so that they have the strength of spirit, religion, self control, personality, intelligence,  good spirit and skills needed as a member of the society. To achieve the honored education aim, a curriculum which is a set of plans and rules of the aim, content and material and learning method have been made.  Curriculum is an instrument to achieve the goal of education. Curriculum covers program focus, instruction media, material organization, learning strategy, class management, and the role of the teacher  (Arieh Lewy in Lccptc. 2008)

Celce -Murcia (2000) defines that a curriculum is a document of an official nature, published by a leading  or  central educational authority  in order to serve as a framework or a set of guidelines for the teaching of a subject area – in our case of language – in a broad and varied context.

BSNP (2006:1751) defines : “ Curriculum is a set of plan and arrangement of objective, content, and lesson material, and also manner that is used as the guidance of learning activities to achieve the aim of  education “. curriculum is called School- based curriculum which is in Bahasa Indonesia called Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP). It replaced the curriculum 2004 which was based on competence ( KBK ). It is the main basis for every education institution in Indonesia to arrange their own syllabus for teaching and learning. It consists of socialization, Competence Standard and Basic Competence, syllabus, and also

lesson plan.

II DISCUSSION

KTSP as a new curriculum is a new paradigm in education world in Indonesia. It gives place for democratization to determine the education curriculum which is appropriate to the community context where the schools take place, financial context, human resources and other things  of the Schools, so that the potential of each school can be optimalized, and there is competition among schools. With KTSP, each school can make their own syllabus, curriculum and  indicators. Although  determining  their  own syllabus, the competence standard and the content has to be accordant with Education National Standard Board (BSNP) (http://www.erlangga.co.id/index). KTSP is based on Law number 20, 2003 about National Education System and The Rules of Government of Republic of Indonesia number 19,2005 about The National Education Standard. It is applied in Primary School, Junior High

School, Senior High School and also the Vocational School, arranged by unit of education  based on the Content Standard ( Standard Isi ) and Passing Standard Competence ( SKL ) also according to the guidance arranged by The Education National Standard Board ( BSNP). It is based on The Rule of Minister of National Education number 24,2006. Its arrangement involves teachers, employees and also The School Committee, with the hope that KTSP will reflect the aspiration of people, environment situation and condition, and the people’s needs.

Based on the competency model  developed by Celce Murcia et.al as cited in Depdiknas  (2003), that communicative competence is discourse competence or a person’s ability to understand and create discourse. Discourse is simply  interpreted as text both spoken and written. To achieve the discourse competence, it needs mastering the proponent competencies. Those proponent competencies are :

1)  Linguistics Competence, it is the  understanding and ability to apply aspect of grammar, vocabulary, pronounciation, and spelling correctly

2)  Actional Competence, it is the ability to use language to express communicative function ( language act : spoken and written )

3)  Socio-Cultural Competence, it is the ability to state and receive message correctly according to sosio cultural context

4)  Strategic Competence, it is the ability and skill to be applied in various communication strategies how to handle the communication problems.

5) Discourse Competence

Indonesia is now in the process of changing its school curriculum into a competence-based curriculum (CBC) aimed at equipping school graduates with sufficient knowledge and life skills so that they can survive, academically and socially, in modern societies. With regard to language education, the government’s decree, No 19, 2005, (Depdiknas, 2005) states that language education should develop language competence with special emphasis on reading and writing according to the literacy level set up for every level of education. In other words, language education in Indonesia is aimed at developing competence that enables school graduates to communicate orally and, especially, in writing. This is certainly not a simple task given that the ultimate goal is not only speaking the language, but writing as well. A CBC needs to be designed in order to help language educators see very clearly what competence they try to develop. A CBC for Language education also needs to clearly define what competence to be achieved if the aim of language education is communication.

The proposed model has been motivated by their “belief in the potential of a direct, explicit approach to the teaching of communicative skills, which would require detailed description of what communicative competence entails in order to use the sub-components as a content base in syllabus design” (1995:6). It is also developed from an L2 perspective but a great deal of it is assumed to have validity for describing L1 use as well. Their model proposes five types of competence: linguistic competence, actional competence, sociocultural competence, strategic competence, and at the heart of the model is discourse competence. In Celce-Murcia et al.’s words:

Thus our construct places the discourse component in a position where the lexico-grammatical building blocks, the actional organizing skills of communicative intent, and the socio-cultural context come together and shape discourse, which, in turn, also shapes each of the other components. (Celce-Murcia et al. 1995:9)

The quotation suggests that looking at language education as an effort to develop language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) involves so much more than providing exercises in the four skills involving different themes. Celce-Murcia et al.’s (1995) article provides lists of what each sub-competence covers that can be referred to as well-defined targets when one tries to develop a curriculum. These well-defined targets need to be seen and understood by language teachers so that they know exactly what they try to develop, and based on this understanding, they can think about what learning experiences needed by the learners, teaching materials, and  methods  needed by the teachers. Celce-Murcia et al.’s lists can be regarded as a translation or elaboration of a “not-so-easy-to-understand” construct called discourse.

III CONCLUSION

One very relevant theory used by Celce-Murcia et al. is that of M.A.K. Halliday who sees language as a means of communication, or as social semiotic (1978). Under Discourse Competence list, for example, they group the items into five sub-headings: Cohesion, Deixis, Coherence, Generic Structure (formal schemata), and Conversational Structure (inherent to the turn–taking system in conversation but may extend to a variety of oral genres). In Hallidayan systemic functional linguistics, these sub headings and their respective items do not belong to the same level of abstraction. The four other lists, together with the discourse list, need to be comprehended as a holistic discourse construct that involves different levels of abstraction according to Halliday’s tri-stratal model of language. One way of understanding how these competences systematically relate to each other is by reviewing Halliday’s model of language and other supporting theories.

In conclution, to achieve the discourse competence, it needs mastering the proponent competencies that are Linguistics Competence, Actional Competence, Socio-Cultural Competence, Strategic Competence and discourse competence.

References:

Celce-Murcia, Marianne, Zoltan Dornyei and Sarah Thurrell. 1995. Communicative Competence: A

Pedagogically Motivated Model with Content Specifications. In Issues in Applied Linguistics.

Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 5-35.

Celce-Murcia, Marianne and Elite Olshtain. 2000. Discourse and Context in Language Teaching: A

Guide for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Halliday, M.A.K. and Ruqaiya Hasan. 1976. Cohesion in English. Essex: Longman Group Limited.

http://www.erlangga.co.id/index

Psychological Trauma of Having a Baby Of The Main Character In THE FAMILY WAY Novel By: Tony Parsons

Psychological Trauma of Having a Baby

Of The Main Character

In THE FAMILY WAY Novel By: Tony Parsons

            The Family Way is a novel which written by Tony Parsons, publish in 2004. It kinds of modern novel because all of the story are drawing about the life of women and men in modern era. The emotional side is pushed forward page to page. The readers are driven like the real life. The story begun when Cat, the older sister at the age of eight had to saw her mother left her and the two of her sisters because of men and carrier, the broken family. Cat was a brilliant little girl. She thought about the life of Jessica and Megan, her two sisters. She tried to take care of them. She was in twelve when her mother really left her and her sisters in eleven and seven. It was a hard life for her to keep looking her sisters. Day by the day they were growing. Cat really wanted a freedom from her life. She thought one day if they were apart, she could felt the freedom. They were really apart. Jessica married with Paulo who loved her so much. Megan, the younger sister moved to flat and she as a GP register doctor. But the life wasn’t like what Jessica wanted. She was so hard for having a baby. All the ways have been tried but the result was noting. However, Megan the younger sister got a pregnant after one night stand, but she really didn’t want to have a baby at this time. Cat really didn’t want to have a baby too. So she asked her boy friend Rory not to have a baby. Rory said yes, they loved each other. The trauma of her life before had made her became a woman without maternal instinct, and she hate her mother so much.

Cat, in her new life without her two sisters was struggling with her life. She has no desire to be a mother at all. But Parsons really believe it’s possible to be a real woman and not want a baby. The only character in this novel that he really despises was a mother who leaves her children and a charier woman with no maternal instinct. As soon as Cat thought a baby she changed her mind: “Without children all you had was now, and reminders of the past.”

In one case, Cat gave suggestion to Rory ex wife about Rory’s child. The one thing that she didn’t imagine was about the answer. Rory ex wife said that Cat really not a mother at all. Since she just a woman without a complete family, It changed her thinking. Here Parsons give an extra emotional to readers. How could when another woman mocked you, you just silence and feel as usual? No, it’s not like that. But it doesn’t really a climax. When Megan, the younger sister, giving birth, Cat held the baby. She felt a physical yearning more powerful than any craving she had ever known. It was stronger than any craving she had ever known. It was stronger than any desire she had ever felt for any lover, or job, or possession. She held a baby so small that it was hardly there at all, and here is the climax, she wanted one for her own. It was mad- what will she do with it? Where would she stick it? Where would it sleep? But she couldn’t help her self. Parsons gives personal female issues. Tony Parsons has a real understanding and empathy of women and hits the nail on the head with this book. He drew a felling of Cat: it felt like Cat had wasted so many years on things that didn’t matter. The pursuit of leisure and money, the endless, ridiculous yearnings for a better car and bigger flat all the time devoted to her late wanted and needed. She was thirty-six years old, with her niece in her arms, she was nearer to forty than thirty and she thought she was not going to die without one day holding a baby of her own. All she needed now was- what was it again? Oh yes, a man. She asked Rory to have a baby. Even Rory couldn’t gave her a baby, Cat wanted Rory to get her vasectomy reversed, have the operation in reversed. It’s hard, but he tried. Cat had been on IVF cycle, the doctor recommended it because of her ages. Rory almost fifteen years older than her. Well done, she was pregnant.

The real point that this novel give that is about physiological trauma for having a baby can be killed by the maternal instinct it self. This book really delves in to the meaning of a family. How do we feel when we have a baby, how do we feel when it’s hard to have a baby. The maternal instinct come up to the surface when we confronted by the real situation. The thing that Cat really didn’t want was a baby. But somehow she had to held the baby. So where was the physical trauma go? Even in her heart she didn’t want to be another like her mother was, she tried to be honesty to her self that to be a mother was a beautiful way in the world and a woman without a baby was like a life without sun. again, Tony Parsons drew the power of women’s heart made something impossible to be possible and the way traumatic case was to be possible thing of it.

What women really want in this life is having babies. Even the hard case like the psychological trauma for having a baby, it can be broken by the powerful of women’s heart it self with the real situation. It must be the most natural thing in the world.